Wednesday, June 8, 2011


Hi Everyone,

Great job this year on blogging our Honors Biology Class. I think that you all learned a lot this year and so did I. Have a wonderful summer and I'll see you in the fall.

Mrs. Andrews

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

June 1, 2011

Yo wat up.

we did a lot of notes today....NERVOUS SYSTEM!

Neuron- nerve cell specialized for carrying signals from one part of the body to another.
Nerve- the communication line made from bundles of neuron fibers wrapped in connective tissue.

The nervous system has two MAIN parts. The CNS (Central Nervous System) and the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)
The functions of the N.S. are sensory output, Integration/Association interneurons, and Motor Output.
Motor Neuron
  • has nucleus and other organelles
  • Dendrites- branched, short, and recieve message from other cells
  • Axon- long fiber that conducts signal toward another neuron or effector.
  • Supporting cells- protect, insulate, reinforce
  • Myelin sheath- chain of beadlike supporting cells
  • Nodes of Ranview- spaces in myelin where impulse is transmitted
  • synaptic knob- relays signals to other neurons
The signals move through the neuron in a weird way. In rest, the INSIDE IS NEGATIVE AND THE OUTSIDE IS POSITIVE. A stimulus is something that causes a nerve signal to start. Action potential is self-propagating change in voltage across plasma membrane.

How does the impulse move from neuron to cell?
  • Electrical Synapse
  1. Bulleted Listaction potential jumps from cell to cell
  2. heart and digestive track
  • Chemical synapse
  1. synaptic cleft- narrow gap seperating 2 cells.
  2. most other organs, skeletal muscle and CNS
Neurotransmitter- chemical carrying info from neuron to another type of cell that will react
  1. Action Potential arrives at the synaptic knob
  2. Neurotransmitter vessicals fuse with membranes
  3. neurotransmitters are released into cleft
  4. neurotransmitter diffuse across gap and binds to receptor proteins on receiving neurons
  5. Ion channels open and ions trigger action potential.
  6. Neurotransmitter are broken down and returned to sending neoron for recycling
  • brain and spinal cord
  • Cephalization- concentration of nervous system at the head end.
  • Centralization- presence of CNS saparate from PNS
  • spinal cord- bundle of nerve fibers in spinal column (Central communication between brain and body)
  • Brain- Master control center (Homeostasis center, sensory center, emotion, intellect
  • Brain as cerebrospinal fluid - liquid that cushions the CNS and helps supply it with nutrients, WBC, and hormones.
  • Has Meninges- layers of connective tissue for protection
  • white matter- mainly axons (with myelin sheath)
  • gray matter- mainly nerve cell bodies and dendrites (Cerebral Cortex)
  • Has a couple of divisions.
  • Sensory Division
  1. brings info to CNS from outside environment
  2. Info into CNS from body itself (internal environment)
  • Motor Division
  1. Somatic Nervous System- carrys signals to Skeletal muscles (voluntary, concious control)
  2. Autonomic Nervous System- controls smooth and cardiac muscle, organs, glands, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and endocrine (2 branches and involuntary)

Yep! Thats all folks!

  1. Study for finals
  2. UP pg. 81-84
  3. study for test Mon.
  4. Crossword puzzle
next scribe Kates...yee

Tuesday, May 31, 2011


What we did today:

  • Notes

  • Balloon lab and Lab #65: UP 57-61


  • Air pollutants: CO, SO2, O3

  • It contains more than 4000 chemicals

  • The chemicals damage the mucus and cilia making it difficult to remove foreign particles

  • It kills over 430,000 Americans per year

  • Emphysema: disease that causes alveoli to disintegrate causing breathlessness and fatigue

Thursday, May 26, 2011


Yunsu Y.
Respiration notes:
** The respiration that we are talking about is not the same as cellular respiration!
1. Respiratory Surfaces:
** not all organisms have respiratory systems: bacteria don't have because their surface area to volume ration is large so diffusion can occur, but for humans our surface area is too small so we need respiratory systems.

  • Earthworm: has moist skin=making diffusion across body surface easier.

  • Aquatic Organisms: gills extend from the body which increases surface area and they are surrounded by water so that diffusion can occur.

  • Terrestrial Organisms: respiratory surfaces fold into the body. The system is inside lined with moisture (mucus), needed for diffusion.

  • Insects: tracheae and no circulatory system to transport O2.

2. Human Respiratory System:

  • Breathing: the moist insides are exposed to air, then O2 dffuese into blood vessels and CO2 to the lungs.

  • Circulatory System: trasnport O2 to all body cells and O2 back to lungs.

  • Diaphragm: Sheet of muscle-important for breathing.

  • Pharynx: where the digestive and respiratory systems meet.

  • Larynx: voice box, we produce sounds by breathing out and the air moves the vocal cords making them vibrate.

  • Trachea: windpipe, somtimes food gets caught here causing us to cough or choke.

  • Bronchi: Lead to each lung

  • Bronchioles: smaller branches

  • Alveoli: cluster of air sacs. These are like the villi and microvilli found in the small intestine. This is where gas exchange occurs with blood vessels. These increase the surface area=more gas exchange.

Aveoli close up

3. Taking a Breath

  • When the diaphragm contracts air is "PULLED" into the lungs. This is increasing the volume and decreasing the pressure. High pressure outside wants to get inside to the low pressure. (high to low!)--------- Negative Pressure breathing.

  • When diaphragm relaxes when the air is "PUSHED" out of the lungs. There is a decrease in volume and an increase in pressure.
4. Controlling our breathing:

  • Nerves in the brain regulate our breathing. Nerves tell the diaphragm when to contract and relax.

  • 10-14 inhalations per minute. (average)

  • This average will change depending on CO2 levels. The more CO2 in the blood, the faster the respiration rate.

  • Hyperventilation: Purges blood of CO2 that brain stops sending messages to the diaphragm. This causes people to pass out but breathing into a paper bag helps by increasing the amount of CO2 taken in.
5. Hemoglobin: Binds to oxygen.

  • Consists of 4 polypeptide chains, heme (chemical group) and iron- gives blood the red color.

  • Each iron atom can bind to 1 O2 molecule=each hemoglobin can carry up to 4 O2 molecules.

  • O2 rich blood is bright red and O2 poor blood is dark red or blue.
6. Problems:

  • Iron deficiency cause anemia

  • When hemoglobin binds to CO (carbon monoxide)=Bad! Now the hemoglobin cannot bind with oxygen because the bond is too strong on the CO. This interferes with the delivery of O2 to the body cells and cellular respiration=death. Also found in cigarette smoke. \
7. Effects of Smoking:

  • Pollutes air

  • Contains many harmful chemicals damaging mucus and cilia making it hard to remove foreign particles. = smokers cough.

  • Smoking kills ~430,000 Americans per year.

  • Emphysema: disease that causes alveoli to disintegrate. = reduces lungs' ability to exchange gas and causes breathlessness and fatigue.

HW: Study for Fetal Pig Dissection Test TOM!!
Lab 54&55 due tom with cover page and color code the pictures
U.P 47-51 and 55-56 due TUESDAY

Next Scribe CJ P.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Pig Dissection Day 3

Heart and Lungs Continued:
We used scissors to cut the blood vessels around the heart.  After examining the heart and the vessels, we examined the back, or dorsal, side of the heart.  Afterwards, the heart was cut lengthwise (the cut was parallel to the front and back of the heart).  Both ventricles and the left atrium were visible inside of the heart.  With the heart removed, we identified the trachea and esophagus.  The trachea is the windpipe that carries air.  The esophagus is the tube that carries food, liquids, and saliva from your mouth to stomach.  The carotid arteris and jugular veins, which carry blood to and from the head, were found on either side of the trachea.  Beneath them was the vagus nerve.  The thyroid gland was placed ventral to the trachea.  It was reddish-brown and had two lobes.  The larynx was located at the top of the trachea.

The Head:

We opened the mouth of the pig and examined the tongue, any teeth visible, and the back of the throat.  We had to use our scalpel to slit the corners of the mouth on both sides in order to view the epiglottis, glottis, and opening to the esophagus.  The pig has four pairs of salivary glands; the largest of these is the parotid gland, which extends from the base of the ear to the shoulder and the jaw.  Using our scalpel, we made an incision through the skin and facial muscles at the base of the ear.  The skin and muscle layer were removed, and we examined the parotid gland.  Beneath the parotid gland was the mandibular gland. 

The Nervous System:

The pig has a very similar nervous system to that of humans.  There is the central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system consisting of cranial and spinal nerves and their branches.  Using our scalpel, we made an incision through the skin of the head.  The skin was then peeled off.  Afterwards, we inserted the pointed end of our scissors between the area where the bones of the skull met.  Then we broke off pieces of the skull until most of the skinned area was open.  The outermost membrane of the pig is called the dura mater.  It is the thickest and toughest of the membranes.  The surface of the brain is covered by a thin membrane called the pia mater.  The third membrane is called the arachnoid membrane and is found between the dura mater and pia mater.  In living animals, cerebrospinal fluid fills the space between the two inner membranes.  Our group frist cut through the dura mater, exposing the brain.  We attempted to identify the right and left cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, cerebrum, olfactory lobes, and the medulla.  We also identified cranial nerves.  The spinal cord was surrounded and protected by the vertebrae of the spinal column.  We removed the skin from an area of the back so around 8~9 cm of the spinal column were exposed.  The remaining tissues were removed so the spiny extensions of the vertebrae were not completly exposed.  We cut off the tops of the spiny extensions of the vertebrae with our scissors and saw the spinal cord and spinal nerves. 

HW: Lab with cover sheet due Friday! (Don't forget to color code diagrams in lab).

Next Scribe: YUNSU Y. (:

Monday, May 23, 2011

Pig Dissection Day 1


We started on our first incisions today after we tied down our pigs. The tying helped make clean cut incisions. These incisions led to seeing the abdominal cavity of the fetal pig. The liver takes up most of the upper part with the lungs and the intestines taking up most of the bottom. The gallbladder is hidden behind the lungs and the stomach is the balloon like structure kind of under the liver.

The sex of the pig can be determined by looking underneath the anus. Both males and females have nipples on the ventral surface. The females have a spike-like genital papilla. Males have a scrotal sac containing the testes under their anus.

Dissection to be continued in the next few posts.

Next scribe: Sally Y. :]

Sunday, May 22, 2011

May 20th 2011


White blood cells v. Platelets

aka: leukocytes
WBCs fight infection
Lack hemoglobin (which is found in RBCs)
Have nucleus (not found in RBCs)
Found OUTSIDE of circulatory system

aka: thrombocytes (bits of cytoplasm broken off from bone marrow)
Fibrinogen: protein found in plasma
Fibrin: Fibrinogen converted by clotting
HEMOPHILIA: excessive, fatal, bleeding occurs from minor cuts
THROMBUS: blood clot that forms in absence of injury
EMBOLUS: thrombus that dislodges and travels

Cardiovascular disease: set of diseases that affect the heart.

The heart requires oxygen rich blood to survive because it's made of TISSUE.

CORONARY ARTERIES: supply heart muscle with oxygen
HEART ATTACK: failure of heart to function properly

ATHEROSCLEROSIS: chronic cardiovascular disease
Cholesterol build up in arteries causing narrow passages--->decreased blood flow----> increased blood pressure= BAD.

ANGIOPLASTY: baloon catheter to compress plaque=opens clogged arteries
STENT: wire mesh tubes prop open arteries
BYPASS SURGERY: vessel sewn onto heart shunt blood around a blocked artery
ARTIFICIAL HEART: an artificial heart.

lots of homework:
Pgs 7-18
Lab 15
Read pig lab -closed toed shoes and hair ties required in case fetal pigs turn into zombies, you will be prepared to run.

Next scribe: Smally Patty (Sonali)

Tuesday, May 17, 2011


How is the heart rate controlled?
pacemaker- sets tempo of heart beat
sends impulses through walls of atria making atria contract
AV node delays the contractions to make sure atria are empty

Ways to increase heart rate
-epinepherine- adrenaline, hormone released during stress

*increasing heart rate transports more oxygen to muscles

ECG and EKG detect electrical impulses from the pacemaker

Blood Vessels
-Arteries carry blood away from heart, high blood pressure and velocity
outer layer: elastic tissue
middle layer: smooth muscle
inner layer: epithelium
-Veins carry blood to heart, low blood pressure and velocity
inner layer: epithilium
one way valves to prevent back-flow
vessels expand and store
-Capillaries allow for diffusion between blood and tissue cells

Blood Flow
Blood pressure- force that blood exerts against walls of blood vessels
Pulse-rhythmic stretching of arteries
reading blood pressure: 120/80
hypertension-high blood pressure
hypotension-low blood pressure
Capillaries-steady blood flow that's increases around digestive tract after eating and skeletal muscle during excercise
Vein- blood moves against gravity, contractions push blood

90% water
10% salt, proteins, nutrients, hormones, waste
RBC- erythrocytes, determine blood type, have hemoglobin, increased surface area form bioncave disk
Hemoglobin- iron with protein that transports oxygen
Anemia- low amount of hemoglobin or RBCs

Monday, May 16, 2011

Scribe 5/16/11

New unit!
First topic: Circulation

What's the purpose of the circulatory system?

1. Maintains the exchange of materials in/out of our bodies
2. Efficient internal transport system of blood and other substances
3. Allows diffusion to occur by giving cells the resources they need

-Oxygen from the lungs go to blood, then to tissue
-Carbon Dioxide from tissue go to blood, then to the lungs

-Basically, the circulatory system gets rid of waste in our bodies (Carbon Dioxide, urine, feces)

There are two types!
-OPEN circulatory system:
--Blood is pumped through open blood vessels and flows among cells
--Invertebrates (no backbone), mollusks (snail), arthropods (insects)

-CLOSED circulatory system:
--Blood pumps within a secluded blood vessel amongst itself
--vertebrates (backbone), earthworm, octopus

Comparative Anatomy: Hearts
-Fish: 2
-Amphibian (Frog): 3
-Reptile (Lizard): 3-4
-Bird/Mammal (Crow/You): 4

The cardiovascular system is a fascinatingly complex one that uniquely comprises primarily (but not exclusively (unless the discussion's basis revolves around the idea of simplistic measures)) of the hard-working heart and the efficiently excellent blood vessels, which are (needless to mention) inevitably teamed up (or forced to work) with the rigorous, colossal player in the soccer stadium, the motivated student in the school, the Lithium-ion 700 Milliamp battery in the Samsung Galaxy S phone, blood (or sangre, in Spanish).

What the...?
Cardiovascular system=heart+blood vessels+blood!

Atrium=heart chamber that RECEIVES BLOOD
Ventricle=heart chamber that KICKS OUT BLOOD

Blood vessels: arteries, then arterioles, then capillaries, then venules, then veins.


SO...... where does blood travel?
1. Right ventricle
2. Lungs
3. Pulmonary valve
4. Capillaries (oxy diffuses into blood)
5. Pulmonary veins
6. Left Atrium (oxy rich!)
7. Bicuspid valve
8. Left ventricle
9. Aortic valve
10. Aorta
11. Capillaries (O2 diffuses into tissues, CO2 diffuses into blood)
12. Superior Vena Cava
13. Inferior Vena Cava
14. Right Atrium
15. Tricuspid Valve
16. Dispersed to supply arteries!

How does the heart work?
-Atria has thin walls, pumps blood to VENTRICLE
-Ventricle has THICK walls, pumps blood to BODY
-Valves make sure blood doesn't come back inside
-4 chambers make it easy to separate oxy rich and oxy poor blood!

Cardiac Cycle
-Definition: rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart
Two phases of this cycle!
1. Diastole-relaxation
2. Systole-contraction

Homework: Read chapter 23 pages 503-514.
Late arrival tomorrow!

Tuesday, May 10, 2011


Hey guys! Sorry there hasn't been a new post in a while. I had some technical difficulties.

Today we took a quiz on digestion. Just remember which enzymes break down what.

Mrs. Patrick collected the frog lab and the energy content lab.

*Read the nutrients lab because it's a bell-to-bell lab so come prepared!!!!!

*Design-A-Quiz due Thursday!!!!

*Ch 22 Study Guide due tomorrow!!!!

Next Scribe: Davin

Tuesday, April 26, 2011


Yunsu Yu

4 Ways that We Regulate Our Internal Environment:

1. Homeostasis: (Review from yesterday...)
  • Steady state. While there are large external fluctuations, our homeostatic mechanisms take those in and make them smaller fluctuations.
  • Although we use homeostasis, there are still changes but in ranges that are tolerable=dynamic state.
2. Negative/Positive Feedback:
  • Negative Feedback: When something is too much and it turns off.---think of a thermostat, you set it to 72 degrees and when it gets too hot inside, the thermostat turns on and when the temperature goes over 72, it turns off because it is too hot at the moment.----"on and off" switch.
  • Positive Feedback: Process that intensifies-makes even more---"on and on more" switch.
  • Usually negative feedback is used especially in our bodies, but positive feedback is still present.
3.Thermoregulation: maintenance of internal body temperature.
  • we are endotherms, we make our own heat from metabolism: sum of chemical reaction=heat.
  • ectotherms use the sun for heat. Ex:Reptiles.
  • Heat loss is regulated by hair, fur, migration, huddling, clothing, sweating, and panting.
  • When we get cold our blood vessels constrict near the surface this is what causes shivering and goosebumps. ---this leads to a decrease in exchange from environment.
  • Our brains are the control center. This is the thermostat of our bodies and uses Negative feedback when needed.
4.Osmoregulation: control of the gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes.
  • Gain water from drinking or eating
  • Through urinating, breathing, and perspiring we lose water. ---the kidneys help regulate this!
When someone has a fever should you lower it?
  • It depends: sometimes a fever is good because it kills bacteria growth and speeds up the repair of damaged tissue. (100-102 degrees)
  • But can also be harmful because it damages body proteins and you can die. (104 degrees and over.)
  • Fever-caused by "pyrogens" these raise the body temperature.
The Excretory System: Kidney, Skin, Lungs..etc
  1. Kidneys are the main organs. They filter blood and take out the "bad" stuff.

  • We have 2 kidneys that are smaller than your fist and are located in the lower back.

  • They contain tubules, capillaries. Throught the tubules blood enters and it filtrates water, glucose, salts, and amino acids.
  • Waste products need to be excreted: urea, extra water, extra salt . (sweat)
  • The four Processes of the Kidney:

  1. Filtration: Small things only enter the tubule.
  2. Reabsorption: Water and solutes are returned. Take back what we want.
  3. Secretion: Specific substances are removed from blood-2nd chance to get everything-drugs go through here (medicine.)
  4. Excretion: Urine exits body. Leftover waste.
We then took a look at the kidney and labeled the parts:

HW: Design a QUiZ due May 12th

Do UP. 53-57 due Thursday

Do Up. 7-11 due Thursday


next scribe: Kristen M.

Monday, April 25, 2011

Unit 11: Body Tissues, Excretion, and Digestion

Anatomy = the study of the structure of an organism and its parts.
Physiology = the study of the function of these structures.

5 Levels of Organization:
  • Cellular Level
  • Tissue Level
  • Organ Level
  • Organ System Level
  • The Organism Itself
Four Main Types of Tissues
1. Epithelial
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
Epithelial Tissue:
covers surface of body, lines organs and cavities
*replaced completely every two weeks*
Connective Tissue:
sparse; scattered through an extracellular matrix; six major types
  1. Loose Connective Tissue (webbed)
  2. Adipose Tissue (fat)
  3. Blood
  4. Fibrous Connective Tissue
  5. Cartilage
  6. Bone
Loose: holds organs in place; loose weave, but strong; has elastic fibers -
"Snap it while you can!" - Christine Kim
Adipose: stores fat; fat bubbles expand when fat is consumed
Blood: red and white blood cells in plasma(liquid)
Fibrous: forms tendons(muscle to bone) and ligaments(bone to bone)
Cartilage: rubbery, but strong; heals slowly
"Sharks are made entirely of cartilage." - James Cho
Bone: rigid with calcium deposits; hard, but not brittle
Muscle Tissue:
MEAT! contract when stimulated by a signal
-3 types:
Skeletal: voluntary, striated(alignment), fixed number(weight lifting only expands)
Cardiac: only in the heart; striated, involuntary(do not have to think to make heart beat)
Smooth: walls of organs, blood vessels; involuntary, not striated
Nervous Tissue:
sends information from one body part to another

"Open" System
we exchange chemicals and energy with surroundings continuously

In = nutrients and oxygen
Out = waste and carbon dioxide
We exchange indirectly via our circulatory system

It means keeping a steady state - internal body maintains constant conditions even when external environment changes.

Next Scribe: Nick.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

April 19. 2011

  • 6 carbons in, 6 carbons out (glucose, 2 pyruvic acid)
  • 2 ATP needed at beginning as investment
  • 4 ATP released, 2 ATP gained at end
  • REMEMBER: break bond--> release energy. form bond--> store potential energy
  • 2 Reactants: NAD+ and Coenzyme A
  • 3 Products: CO2, NADH (potential energy/energy carrier), Acetyl-CoA
  • 6 carbons in, 6 carbons out
  • Reactants: Acetic acid, ADP+P, 3 NAD+, FAD
  • Products: 2CO2, 2ATP, 3 NADH, FADH2 (energy carrier)
  • concentration gradient similar to photosynthesis,
  • H+ ions move from high concentration to low concentration by diffusion,
  • fuels ATP sythase to create ATP from ADP (34 total)
  • O2 is final electron acceptor, bonds with H+ to form H2O
  • example of anaerobic function: sprinting
  • anaerobic: doesn't require oxygen
  • aerobic: requires oxygen
  • facultative anaerobe can break down with or without oxygen
  • obligate anaerobe is poisoned by oxygen
  • obligate aerobe dependent on oxygen to survive
  • body cells facultative anaerobes
  • human body is an obligate aerobe
  • Only 2 ATP produced compared to 34-38 in cellular respiration
  • anaerobic glycolysis is included in process
  • lactic acid is waste product
  • anaerobic
  • Yeast produces ethyl alcohol and CO2
  • anaerobic
Next Scribe: Sonali

Saturday, April 9, 2011


Photosynthesis Chemical Reaction (Please Memorize!!!!)
  • 6 CO2 + 6 H20 = C6H1206 + 6 O2
  • (The numbers are actually subscripts and the "equals" sign is actually an arrow, meaning "yield")
  • Reactants= 6 CO2 (Carbon Dioxide), 6 H20 (Water)
  • Products= C6H1206 (Glucose), 6 02 (Oxygen Gas)
  • Electrons added to Carbon dioxide to produce sugar Water molecules split and release oxygen gas (Sunlight provides the energy for this)
  • Simple Summary of Photosynthesis

Light Reactions and Calvin Cycle- 2 different cycles but work together

  • Light Reactions
  • convert solar energy to chemical energy
  • make ATP (for energy storage) and NADPH (is an electron carrier)
  • Reactants: NADP+ and ADP and Water (H20) and Light
  • Products: Oxygen and ATP and NADPH
  • Happens in thylakoid
  • Calvin Cycle
  • "light independent cycle" or "dark reactions"
  • makes sugar from CO2
  • uses ATP and NADPH from light reactions
  • Reactants: CO2, ATP, NADPH
  • Products: Sugar (there are other products too; any other organic product can result also)

Products of Light Reactions are needed for Calvin Cycle and products of Calvin Cycle needed for Light Reactions (Dependent on each other)

Light Reactions

(More Detailed)

  • Light is energy!!!
  • Sunlight- radiation or electromagnetic energy
  • Visible Light is from 380-750 nm (wavelength)
  • What we can see- ONLY light reflected from an object

EX- green leaves absorb red-orange and blue-violet light; reflecting green light (chloroplasts convert that absorbed energy into chemical energy)

  • Chloroplast Pigments (found in photosystems)
  • Chlorophyll a-
  • absorbs blue-violet light and red light
  • participates directly w/ light reactions
  • Chloropyll b-
  • absorbs blue and orange light
  • increases range of light that can be absorbed (helps light reactions)
  • Carotenoids-
  • absorbs blue-green light
  • absorbs and dissipates excessive light that could damage chlorophyll a

Photosystems and Light

  • Photon- fixed quantity of light energy
  • pigment molecules absorb photons of light, "exciting" the electrons so that they have more energy (higher energy state)
  • electrons "falls" back to normal state (because the more energy they have the more unstable they are)
  • releases energy (in form of light or heat)

arrows=light and heat energy being released as electron falls back to normal state

    • Photosystems- have clusters of pigment molecules that act as antennae for photons of light
    • Photons of light "jump" from pigment to pigment until they reach the Reaction Center (has chlorophyll a)
    • Next to Reaction Center= Primary Electron Acceptor
    • traps the excited light energy into ATP or NADPH

    2 types of Photosystems

    • Water-splitting
    • light energy to extract electrons from water
    • releases oxygen as waste product
    • NADPH Producing
    • produces NADPH by transferring light excited electrons from chlorophyll to NADP+
    • Electron transport chain
    • connects the 2 photosystems, releases energy used to make ATP

    • ATP Synthase- uses energy stored by H+ gradient to make ATP
    • H+ molecules= more on the inside than on the outside, so they want to move to the outside


    Read CH. 7

    Pre-lab UP pg. 9-12

    Next scribe= Kristen :):)

    Thursday, April 7, 2011


    End of Chemistry notes:

    Chemical reaction: the chemical composition of matter is changed in a reaction

    - in order to have a balanced chamical reaction, the number of each element must be the equal on both sides




    -Photosynthesis feeds the biosphere

    -converts energy from sun energy into chemical energy of organic compounds

    -occurs in plants, some protists and some bacteria

    -Autotrophs- make own food, need inorganic compounds to make organic compounds, these are the producers

    -Heterotrophs- cannot make its own food, they eat, dependent on autotrophs, these are the consumers

    Photosynthesis occurs in CHLOROPLASTS (mainly the leaves of a plant)

    -double membrane envelope

    -inner membrane encloses stroma- fluid where sugars are made

    -thylakaids- sacs in stroma

    -grana=stacks of thylakaids


    Homework: read chapter 7

    Next Scribe: bridget :)

    Wednesday, April 6, 2011


    Today, the Fast Plant was due, so everyone make sure that you get that in. Also, today we continued some Basic Chemistry Notes (We couldn't do much because of the late arrival). One important note is that molecules, a new term, are groups of atoms that are joined together through chemical bonds. The big thing was the main difference between ionic bonds and covalent bonds, which are both tyes of chemical bonds. Remember that: Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons. And covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms. Examples: ionic bond = table salt molecules, and covalent bonds = water molecules As a general note: remember that atoms are the basic unit of matter. Elements are substances that are made of only one type of atom. Compounds are substances that are made up of two or more elements. And molecules are particles that are made up of two or more different types of atom. Next scribe = Claire

    Wednesday, March 23, 2011


    Chapter 29 Continued
    • Transpiration works greatest on sunny, warm, dry and windy days.
    • Maple tree can lose more than 200 L of water per hour (that's a lot)!
    • Leaf stomata can help plants adjust to transpiration rates by changing shape.
    • Open during the day, closed during the night (saves water).
    • The stomata may close during the day if the plant is losing water too fast.
    The Transport of Sugars:
    • Phloem saps move in various directions inside of a plant.
    • Phloem moves sugar from a leaf to a root of fruit.
    • They move through a pressure-flow mechanism.
    • Pressure-flow mechanism is the building of water pressure at source end of phloem tube, and the reduction of water pressure at the sink end causes water to flow from the source (leaf) to sink (root or fruit), carrying sugar with it.
    Plant Hormones:
    • Plant hormones control the growth & development of a plant.
    • It affects division, elongation, & differentiation in cells.
      • Auxin - Produced by apical meristem, stimulates growth of the shoot -- causes the cell to elongate.
        • Cells elongate on the darker side of the stem, causing the stem to bend on opposite sides.
        • Requires certain concentrations: too much causes inhibition of stem elongation.
        • Usually inhibits roots.
      • Ethylene - A gas that triggers aging responses - fruit ripening, dropping of leaves.
        • Why does "one bad apple spoil the whole bunch?" Because one causes all to spoil, it spreads out.
      • Cytokinins - Regulates growth, promotes cell division in roots, embryos, and fruits. 
        • Stimulates growth of axillary buds (makes it more bushy).
      • Gibberellins - Stimulates cell elongation & cell division in stems.
        • Can influence fruit development.
      • Abscisic Acid - Slows growth.
        • During droughts, causes stomata to close when wilted, preventing further water loss.
    • Enviornment that plants use to detect the time of the year; Lengths of day & night.
    • 2 Groups:
      • Long-night Plants - chrysanthemum & poinsettias - flower in late summer, fall, or winter, when night lenghtens (Short-day).
      • Short-night Plants - lettuce, iris, cereal grains, flower in late spring or early summer, when nights are brieft (Long-day).
    • We are currently transitioning into short-nights.
    • Some plants aren't affected by photoperiods -- dandelions.
    HW: EC UP. 63-64, Study!

    Next Scribe: Sonali P.


    Chapter 29: The Working Plant

    Sap- a watery solution that moves through the vascular system.
    -In the xylem, it carries nutrients from root to leaves.
    -In phloem, it transports pre made sugar to the leaves and other parts of the plant.
    -Made in Spring using starch from the previous summer into sugar

    -Plants need CO2 from air (through stomata)
    -They need H2O from soil (root hairs)
    -and O2 from soil (through stomata)

    -A plant releases more O2 by photosynthesis than by
    -All nutrition that enters the plant must be dissolved in water.
    -Go through the epidermis -> cortex ->plasma membrane of root cells
    -Plants need Macronutrients in large amounts. (carbon, hydrogen, oxtygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and magnesium.)
    -They need Micronutrients in small amounts (zinc, molybdenum, boron, nickel, mainly enzymes.)

    Bacteria help with nutrition; three types:
    1.) NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA- converts N2 in the air to ammonium
    2.) AMMONIFYING BACTERIA- adds ammonium to decomposing plant matter
    3.) NITRIFYING BACTERIA- converts soil to nitrate.

    -Legumes have root nodules that contain nirtogen fixing bacteria.
    -Symbiotic relationship, bacteria get home, plants get ions in soil.

    The transportation of water:
    -Pulled up through transpiration
    -cohesion water molecules stick together
    -adhesion-water molecules stick to each other

    next scribe SALLY Y.

    Monday, March 14, 2011


    Look for more notes at the flowering plant lab

    Difference between Monocots and Dicots:


    • include orchids, palms, lilies, grains, and grasses.
    • 1 cotyledon
    • veins usually parallel
    • Vascular bundles in scattered arrangement
    • floral parts usually in multiples of 3
    • Fibrous root system


    • 2 cotyledons
    • veins usually branched
    • vascular bundles arranged in ring
    • floral parts usually in multiples of 5
    • taproot usually present
    Roots: root hairs increase surface area of root for absorbtion. Large taproots-store food
    Stems: Terminal bud is at apex of stem. It produces hormones making the plant grow up toward the sun.
    3 kinds of stems:
    1. Runner: horizontal stem, new plants emerge from tip of runner
    2. Rhizome: Horizontal undergrowth stems, store food and can bud new plants
    3. Tubers: rhizomes ending in large structures(potatoes)
    Tendrils= modified leaves for climbing and support.
    Parenchyma cells: most abundant cell, for food storage, only primary cell walls
    Collenchyma cells: provide support in growing parts of plant, only primary cell walls
    Sclerenchyma cells: have thick secondary walls with lignin(wood), when mature most are dead
    2 plant vascular tissues:
    1. Xylem: contains water conducting cells- move water and minerals up stem
    2. Phloem: contains food conducting cells-transport sugars from leaves or storage tissue to other parts of plant
    3 tissue systems continuous throughout plant:
    1. Dermal: covers, protcts, waxy coating
    2. Vascular: xylem and phloem, support and transport
    3. Ground: bulk of young plant, fills spaces between epidermis and vascular
    Pollination and double fertilization steps:
    1. Pollination
    2. Pollen form 2 sperm
    3. sperm travel through a pollen tube to ovule
    4. double fertilization occurs
    next scribe: Davin

    Saturday, March 12, 2011

    March 11, 2011


    Today we started off the day by watering our Wild plants. We watered them good for the weekend.
    Next we moved on to notes.

    Moss-Antheridium is the male gametophyte

    II. Ferns
    • very diverse and most live in the tropics and temperate woodlands.
    • Started to have vascular tissue
    • Sperm are still flagellated (STILL NEED WATER!)
    • Still seedless- have spores
    • Sporophytes are diploid and gametophytes are haploid
    • Sporophyte is the dominant stage
    • heart shaped gametophyte is Prothallus
    III. Gymnosperms
    • cone-bearing plants (conifers)
    • Withstand harsh winter
    • Tallest, oldest, largest
    • needle shaped leaves
    • have thick cuticle and stomata in pits to prevent water loss
    • wood- vascular tissue with liginin
    • more sporophyte generation, gametophytes live in cones
    • have pollen (male gametophyte
    1. contains sperm
    2. wind carries it
    3. evolution of seeds
    • lack ovaries so seeds are naked
    • seeds germinates under favorable conditions only
    • 2 types of cones
    1. Female cone is hard, woody, and more familiar (pinecones)
    2. Male cone is smaller, releases millions of pollen grains. Wind blows it.
    3. Advantage is more genetic variation
    IV. Angiosperms- flowering plants
    • supply food, textile, some lumber
    • refined vascular tissue
    • evolution of flowers- responsible for unparalleled success
    • the flowers display male and female parts
    • insects transfer pollen. Advantage of this is there is a higher chance of pollenation
    • Flower has Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals
    1. Sepals- green, enclose flower before is opens up
    2. petals- these are th parts that attract the insects
    3. stamen- have filaments that bears a sac called the anther. Anther is a MALE organ that develops the pollen grains
    4. Carpel- also known as pistil. has a sticky tip called the stigma that traps the pollen. Has a style and an ovary. A chamber containing one or more ovules. This is where the egg develops!
    Angiosperms life cycle
    • Sporophyte is a familiar plant- female gametophyte within the ovule, and th emale gametophyte is the pollen
    • pollen lands on stigma, tube goes to the ovule. It deposits 2 sperm nuclei. Double fertalization
    • one sperm cell fertilizes. This becomes a zygote and then an embryo.
    • the other cell becomes nutrient for the embryo- storing tissue is called the endosperm
    • Embryo has food within the ovule
    • Ovule develops into a seed. THE SEED IS NOT NAKED
    • Fruit: ripened ovary of the flower
    • Fruit protects and helps disperse seeds.
    • Animals help to disperse the seeds
    • All fruit and vegetables crops are angiosperms.

    This is the end of the notes we took. Next we watched a Life video.

    HW: Read Chapter 28, work on projects

    next scribe is Care Bear

    Thursday, March 10, 2011


    For the graph, you will draw 4 lines per line graph.
    1. Your water rosette
    2. Your GA rosette
    3. Class Avg. water rosette
    4. Class Avg. GA rosette

    New terms:
    gibberellin ~ substance that make stems longer
    hormone ~ substance that messes with women during pregnancy (transports around organism with specific effect)
    node ~ points where leaves are connected
    internode ~ part of stem in between 2 nodes

    Why study plants?
    -B.E.A. uuuutiful. -Jim Carrey, Bruce Almighty -Foodclothesenergylumberpaperoxygenwaterrecreationart ETC.
    -Forests are being destroyed... we are gon' learn how we can help!

    -Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotroph

    Adapted to Land:
    1. Mycorrhizae ~ plant root/fungi alliance
    Fungi absorb the soil's minerals for plant, plant's sugar nourishes fungi in return.
    2. Stomata ~ pores in a leaf exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen.
    3. Cuticle (Cutin) ~ leaf wax, holds water
    4. Lignin ~ hardens cell walls
    5. Roots and shoots ~ stem plant growth
    6. Xylem tissue moves water up^
    Phloem tissue moves food around <>
    7. Gametangia ~ cell shield that guards female gamete chamber
    8. Seed dispersal ~ relies on wind/animals... =plant reproduction

    Origin of Plants from Green Algae
    Charophycean ~ multicell green algae-Mother of Plants
    Plant Evolution: 1. bryophytes (moss)
    2. ferns (reproduce via spore)
    3. gymnosperms (Christmas trees)
    4. angiosperms (flowers)

    1. bryophytes
    -MOSS, many plants packed together
    -NO CUTICLE WAX, no true roots
    -reproduce needs water, flagellated sperm swim to egg
    -No vascular tissue(no water transport), no lignin(cell wall)
    -Damp Dark places
    -Green sponge plant ~ gametophyte
    -Grows from gametophyte, tall brown shoot with capsule ~ sporophyte

    Generations Take Turns
    -Generations take turns making each other
    Gametophytes' egg and sperm make zygote, makes new sporophytes
    Sporophytes' spores make strong organisms, makes new gametophytes

    [Note to next scribe: Start off notes with II.Ferns on page 7 of note packet.]

    Extra Credit: Find moss with both Gametophyte and Sporophyte generations and bring em'!

    -In groups of 4, an American wildland was chosen and we are to research them.
    -Using GoogleDocs, we are to create an 8 minute presentation that we will present when we return from SPRING BREAK! ... (to get to GoogleDocs, sign in with your Glenbrook225 email on and on the top left of Google, there should be a 'More' and select "Documents"
    -Requirements for project are on page 3 of UP, Rubric on page 4 of UP
    -Next Friday, 3/18, will be the 2nd and last IMC work day. Be solid by then.


    scribe: Justin Timberlake

    Wednesday, March 2, 2011

    Chordata, 3/2/11

    CJ P.

    We looked at things inside of jars. These things have something in common. They are all part of the phylum: CHORDATA. They are also all in the sub-phylum: VERTEBRAE.

    There are 7 classes of vertebrae:
    1. Agnatha
    2. Chondrichthyes
    3. Osteichthyes
    4. Amphibia
    5. Reptilia
    6. Aves
    7. Mammalia

    The common chordate traits are:
    dorsal hollow nerve cord
    gills or pharyngeal slits
    post anal tail

    -lack jaws
    -includes lampreys
    -sometimes are parasites

    -usually predators
    -sharks can sense electrical movements
    -nearly all marine

    -bony fishes
    -they are buoyant, unlike sharks
    -the operculum is a protective flap that allows
    the fish to breathe without swimming

    -"double life"
    -moist skin
    -includes metamorphosis

    -first evolved amniotic eggs (water containing eggs)
    -regulate internal temperature by behavior

    -also have amniotic eggs
    -they have scales on their feet like reptiles

    -constant internal temperature

    three groups of mammals:
    1. Monotremes (egg laying mammals)
    2. Marsupials (pouched mammals)
    3. Eutherians (placentas provide long lasting association between mom and child)

    hw: Nature due on Friday, 87-93 and extra credit 81-82

    scribe: Nick.

    the end.

    Thursday, February 24, 2011


    Today, we started out with working on unit packet pages 35-36, in which we looked at specimens of various invertabrates, and used a key and a chart to identify specifically which phylum the animals belonged to.
    We also did an earthworm lab, where we performed various experiments to further examine how an earthworm lives their everyday lives. We examined many concepts such as how it reacts to touch, moisture, light, and others. We also observed it, and we found out how it moved and the parts of the worm that were visible.
    Be prepared to gather certain supplies for an isopod lab for tomorrow, in which groups will pick a certain topic for experimentation of a rolly-polly. Here, the groups are creating their own experiments, so a procedure of a possible experiment would be helpful, and you can revise it when you meet with a possible group.
    Also, remember to study the differences between all of the phylum of invertabrates, and any other notes that we have covered.
    The homework for tonight is: complete Unit Packet pgs. 45-50, prepare for the isopod lab, and the nature magazine is due on March 4th.

    Next scribe is: Nick

    Wednesday, February 23, 2011

    Kingdom Animalia : Phyla

    Today's schedule was going over the hydra and planarian lab, do pages 33-34 in the UP, and then notes.
    Pages 33-34 was about a phylogenetic tree. *Animals on the outside are still living and animals that stop somewhere in the middle went extinct.

    Embryonic development details:
    Two branches for the animals with true coeloms:
    1. Mollusks, annelids, and anthropods- mouth comes first -- protostomes
    2. Echinoderms and chordates- anus comes first -- deuterostomes
    Animalia Kingdom: 8 major phyla

    Porifera- sponges
    they are sessile;
    simplest animals;
    can be 1 cm or 2 m;
    no nerves or muscles;
    live in marine (salt water);
    body is like a sace perforated with holes to let the water flow through;
    digest food using phagocytosis;
    eat bacteria from the water.
    Cnidaria- jellyfish
    have radial symmetry (more than one way to cut in half);
    carnivores with stinging cells;
    have a gastrovascular cavity (mouth and anus in one);
    can be sessile (polyp) or free-floating (medusa).
    Platyhelminthes- flatworms
    bilateral symmetry (only one way to cut in half);
    can live in marine, freshwater and even damp land;
    can be parisitic (tapeworms);
    no digestive tract in the parasites.
    Nematoda- roundworms
    most diverse animals known;
    they live in wet soil and most aquatic habitats;
    they have a completes digestive tract (mouth and an anus);
    they are pseudocoelomates (body cavity partially lined with mesoderm;
    can be very parasitic.
    Mollusca- snails
    soft bodied-usually with a hard protected shell;
    feed using a straplike rasping organ called a radula;
    can live in freshwater, marine, or land;
    three main parts to the body-a muscular foot, a body mass with organs, and a drape-like mantle;
    three major classes-gastropods (snails and slugs)
    -bivalves (clams, oysters, and mussels)
    -cephalopods (squids and octopuses)
    Annelida- segmented worms
    have body segementation (division on body into equal parts);
    live in the sea, freshwater, and wet soil;
    three major classes are earthworms, polychaetes, and leeches;
    nourish the soil;
    polychaetes are marine;
    leeches have been used for medicine in the past.
    Arthropoda- millipedes
    have jointed appedages;
    most successful phyla;
    specialized functions: walking, feeding, sensory reception, copulation, defense, exoskeleton.

    The homework was UP pgs 37-38, prelab pgs 45-54, nature cover, and to read chapter 17
    Next scribe: Skyler
    ( these were colorful but the color didn't work :[

    Monday, February 21, 2011


    Yunsu Y.

    ↑Parmecium ↑

    • Most protists are single celled, but there are still some that are multicellular.

    • They are eukaryotes and more complex than prokaryotes.

    • 2 Theories of how eukaryotic cells evolved :

    1. All organelles evolved from inward folds of the plasma membrane or endocytosis. ----except mitochondria and chloroplast, because they have their own DNA.

    2. Endosymbiosis

    • developed by Lynn Margulis

    • chloroplast and mitochondria evolved from small prokaryotes that established residenc within other, larger host prokaryotes.----the host cell may have injested theses for food and if remained alive, continued to perform respiration within cell.

    • Like before, most are unicellular, but some are colonial or mulitcellular. (those two are different.)

    1. 4 categories of protists:

    • protozoans

    • slime molds

    • unicellular algae

    • seaweeds

    1. Protozoans

    • Ingest food and have to live in the water, wet soil or watery enviornment inside animals.

    • They have flagellates: one or more to move. Free living but some are parasitic

    • Amoeboas: move by pseudopodia-extensions of cytoplasm.

    • Forams: move with pseudopodia and components of limestone.

    • Apicomlexans: all parasitic and named for an apparatus at their apex.

    • Ciliates: use cilia to move and feed.

    2. Slime molds:

    • may look like fungi but not closely related.

    • decomposers

    3. Unicellular Algae:

    • have chloroplast

    • components of plankton-communities of organism, microscopic and drift or swim near surface of ponds and oceans.

    • planktonic algae=phytoplankton

    • 3 groups:
    -Dinoflagellates: 2 flagella, blooms cause red tide.

    -Diatoms: glassy cells walls with silica-used to make glass.

    -Green algae: mostly in freshwater lakes and ponds. Most closely related to true plants but still towards the protists. Volvox is a colony of flagellated cells.

    4. Seaweeds

    • multicellular marine algae

    • slimy rubbery substances that cushion bodies against waves

    • Different colors like: green, red, brown

    • Used fro food: found commonly in Asian food, soups, wraps, sushi.
    -some have polysaccharides, humans cannot digest.

    • Also used for thickeners: pudding, ice cream, salad dressing, and Gel agar in petri dishes.

    After notes we worked on U.P pg 27-31, whatever that was not finished was homework.

    HW: pre-lab U.P pg 39-43, be prepared on Monday, know what we are doing. Nature Due 3/4

    Next Scribe: Davin L.

    Thursday, February 17, 2011



    Lab 44 and Fungi Notes

    Today in class, we took notes on Fungus.

    Some important things to remember.......


    Decompose dead organisms
    • Recycle vital chemicals back into the environment
    • Eukaryotes
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
    • Some fungi is pathogenic
    Structure and Function

    • Adapted for absorptive nutrition
    • Hyphae- threads composed of tubular walls
    • Hyphae form mycelium, which is the feeding network of a fungus


    • Reproduce by releasing spores
    • spores germinate to produce mycelia

    • Yeast
    • Cheese
    • Delicacies
    • Antibiotics
    • Mycorrhizae
    More detailed notes in note packet

    We also did Lab 44


    In this activity you will:

    1. Identify the parts of a mushroom

    2. Observe basidia and spores of a mushroom

    3. Observe the structure of lichens


    • mushroom
    • hand lens
    • paper
    • lichens

    We did not do everything that the procedure said. Mrs. Andrews showed us what the different thinngs looked like under the microscope.

    Lab 44 is in the workbooks


    Finish Lab 44
    You Pick 2 UP pg 15-26 (pick to keys to do)

    Next Scribe: Yunsu

    Wednesday, February 16, 2011



    Systematics- studying biological diversity(past and present) to reconstruct evolutionary history

    Taxonomy- classification of species
    -used to communicate internationally (common names for each species)
    -international language-Latin

    Carolus Linnaeus-physician and botanist who started Binomial nomenclature (two-part name for each species)
    -Ex: Homo sapien (Genus capitalized, species lowercase, both in italics, or underlined if handwritten)

    hierarchial classification system puts species into broader groups:

    Before, species were grouped by appearance
    Now, "Cladistic Revolution" has taken place because of use of DNA, molecules, and technology
    -classify species with Cladistic analysis- search for clades("branch" which consists of an ancestor and its descendants in a tree of life)
    -items in a clade can be species, classes, phyla, etc.
    -focuses on evolutionary innovations that define branch points in evolution
    -let phylogeny (evolutionary history of a group or species) be discovered
    -most used method in systemics

    Cladistic Analysis is shaking phlyogenetic trees
    -puts birds and reptiles in separate classes
    -produces phylogenetic trees conflicting with classical taxonomy

    Old way: with 5 kingdoms
    New way: with 3 domains
    Bacteria (prokaryote)
    Archaea (prokaryote)
    Eukarya (eukaryote-plants, animals, fungi, protists)

    Taxonomic Key- listing of specific characteristics, such as structure and behavior, in such a way that an organism can be identified
    -has 2 opposing statements
    -always start at statement number 1

    Homework: UP 7-14
    Next Scribe: Kristen M.