Monday, March 14, 2011


Look for more notes at the flowering plant lab

Difference between Monocots and Dicots:


  • include orchids, palms, lilies, grains, and grasses.
  • 1 cotyledon
  • veins usually parallel
  • Vascular bundles in scattered arrangement
  • floral parts usually in multiples of 3
  • Fibrous root system


  • 2 cotyledons
  • veins usually branched
  • vascular bundles arranged in ring
  • floral parts usually in multiples of 5
  • taproot usually present
Roots: root hairs increase surface area of root for absorbtion. Large taproots-store food
Stems: Terminal bud is at apex of stem. It produces hormones making the plant grow up toward the sun.
3 kinds of stems:
  1. Runner: horizontal stem, new plants emerge from tip of runner
  2. Rhizome: Horizontal undergrowth stems, store food and can bud new plants
  3. Tubers: rhizomes ending in large structures(potatoes)
Tendrils= modified leaves for climbing and support.
Parenchyma cells: most abundant cell, for food storage, only primary cell walls
Collenchyma cells: provide support in growing parts of plant, only primary cell walls
Sclerenchyma cells: have thick secondary walls with lignin(wood), when mature most are dead
2 plant vascular tissues:
  1. Xylem: contains water conducting cells- move water and minerals up stem
  2. Phloem: contains food conducting cells-transport sugars from leaves or storage tissue to other parts of plant
3 tissue systems continuous throughout plant:
  1. Dermal: covers, protcts, waxy coating
  2. Vascular: xylem and phloem, support and transport
  3. Ground: bulk of young plant, fills spaces between epidermis and vascular
Pollination and double fertilization steps:
  1. Pollination
  2. Pollen form 2 sperm
  3. sperm travel through a pollen tube to ovule
  4. double fertilization occurs
next scribe: Davin

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