Wednesday, February 16, 2011



Systematics- studying biological diversity(past and present) to reconstruct evolutionary history

Taxonomy- classification of species
-used to communicate internationally (common names for each species)
-international language-Latin

Carolus Linnaeus-physician and botanist who started Binomial nomenclature (two-part name for each species)
-Ex: Homo sapien (Genus capitalized, species lowercase, both in italics, or underlined if handwritten)

hierarchial classification system puts species into broader groups:

Before, species were grouped by appearance
Now, "Cladistic Revolution" has taken place because of use of DNA, molecules, and technology
-classify species with Cladistic analysis- search for clades("branch" which consists of an ancestor and its descendants in a tree of life)
-items in a clade can be species, classes, phyla, etc.
-focuses on evolutionary innovations that define branch points in evolution
-let phylogeny (evolutionary history of a group or species) be discovered
-most used method in systemics

Cladistic Analysis is shaking phlyogenetic trees
-puts birds and reptiles in separate classes
-produces phylogenetic trees conflicting with classical taxonomy

Old way: with 5 kingdoms
New way: with 3 domains
Bacteria (prokaryote)
Archaea (prokaryote)
Eukarya (eukaryote-plants, animals, fungi, protists)

Taxonomic Key- listing of specific characteristics, such as structure and behavior, in such a way that an organism can be identified
-has 2 opposing statements
-always start at statement number 1

Homework: UP 7-14
Next Scribe: Kristen M.

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