Thursday, February 24, 2011


Today, we started out with working on unit packet pages 35-36, in which we looked at specimens of various invertabrates, and used a key and a chart to identify specifically which phylum the animals belonged to.
We also did an earthworm lab, where we performed various experiments to further examine how an earthworm lives their everyday lives. We examined many concepts such as how it reacts to touch, moisture, light, and others. We also observed it, and we found out how it moved and the parts of the worm that were visible.
Be prepared to gather certain supplies for an isopod lab for tomorrow, in which groups will pick a certain topic for experimentation of a rolly-polly. Here, the groups are creating their own experiments, so a procedure of a possible experiment would be helpful, and you can revise it when you meet with a possible group.
Also, remember to study the differences between all of the phylum of invertabrates, and any other notes that we have covered.
The homework for tonight is: complete Unit Packet pgs. 45-50, prepare for the isopod lab, and the nature magazine is due on March 4th.

Next scribe is: Nick

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Kingdom Animalia : Phyla

Today's schedule was going over the hydra and planarian lab, do pages 33-34 in the UP, and then notes.
Pages 33-34 was about a phylogenetic tree. *Animals on the outside are still living and animals that stop somewhere in the middle went extinct.

Embryonic development details:
Two branches for the animals with true coeloms:
  1. Mollusks, annelids, and anthropods- mouth comes first -- protostomes
  2. Echinoderms and chordates- anus comes first -- deuterostomes
Animalia Kingdom: 8 major phyla

Porifera- sponges
they are sessile;
simplest animals;
can be 1 cm or 2 m;
no nerves or muscles;
live in marine (salt water);
body is like a sace perforated with holes to let the water flow through;
digest food using phagocytosis;
eat bacteria from the water.
Cnidaria- jellyfish
have radial symmetry (more than one way to cut in half);
carnivores with stinging cells;
have a gastrovascular cavity (mouth and anus in one);
can be sessile (polyp) or free-floating (medusa).
Platyhelminthes- flatworms
bilateral symmetry (only one way to cut in half);
can live in marine, freshwater and even damp land;
can be parisitic (tapeworms);
no digestive tract in the parasites.
Nematoda- roundworms
most diverse animals known;
they live in wet soil and most aquatic habitats;
they have a completes digestive tract (mouth and an anus);
they are pseudocoelomates (body cavity partially lined with mesoderm;
can be very parasitic.
Mollusca- snails
soft bodied-usually with a hard protected shell;
feed using a straplike rasping organ called a radula;
can live in freshwater, marine, or land;
three main parts to the body-a muscular foot, a body mass with organs, and a drape-like mantle;
three major classes-gastropods (snails and slugs)
-bivalves (clams, oysters, and mussels)
-cephalopods (squids and octopuses)
Annelida- segmented worms
have body segementation (division on body into equal parts);
live in the sea, freshwater, and wet soil;
three major classes are earthworms, polychaetes, and leeches;
nourish the soil;
polychaetes are marine;
leeches have been used for medicine in the past.
Arthropoda- millipedes
have jointed appedages;
most successful phyla;
specialized functions: walking, feeding, sensory reception, copulation, defense, exoskeleton.

The homework was UP pgs 37-38, prelab pgs 45-54, nature cover, and to read chapter 17
Next scribe: Skyler
( these were colorful but the color didn't work :[

Monday, February 21, 2011


Yunsu Y.

↑Parmecium ↑

  • Most protists are single celled, but there are still some that are multicellular.

  • They are eukaryotes and more complex than prokaryotes.

  • 2 Theories of how eukaryotic cells evolved :

  1. All organelles evolved from inward folds of the plasma membrane or endocytosis. ----except mitochondria and chloroplast, because they have their own DNA.

  2. Endosymbiosis

  • developed by Lynn Margulis

  • chloroplast and mitochondria evolved from small prokaryotes that established residenc within other, larger host prokaryotes.----the host cell may have injested theses for food and if remained alive, continued to perform respiration within cell.

  • Like before, most are unicellular, but some are colonial or mulitcellular. (those two are different.)

  1. 4 categories of protists:

  • protozoans

  • slime molds

  • unicellular algae

  • seaweeds

  1. Protozoans

  • Ingest food and have to live in the water, wet soil or watery enviornment inside animals.

  • They have flagellates: one or more to move. Free living but some are parasitic

  • Amoeboas: move by pseudopodia-extensions of cytoplasm.

  • Forams: move with pseudopodia and components of limestone.

  • Apicomlexans: all parasitic and named for an apparatus at their apex.

  • Ciliates: use cilia to move and feed.

2. Slime molds:

  • may look like fungi but not closely related.

  • decomposers

3. Unicellular Algae:

  • have chloroplast

  • components of plankton-communities of organism, microscopic and drift or swim near surface of ponds and oceans.

  • planktonic algae=phytoplankton

  • 3 groups:
-Dinoflagellates: 2 flagella, blooms cause red tide.

-Diatoms: glassy cells walls with silica-used to make glass.

-Green algae: mostly in freshwater lakes and ponds. Most closely related to true plants but still towards the protists. Volvox is a colony of flagellated cells.

4. Seaweeds

  • multicellular marine algae

  • slimy rubbery substances that cushion bodies against waves

  • Different colors like: green, red, brown

  • Used fro food: found commonly in Asian food, soups, wraps, sushi.
-some have polysaccharides, humans cannot digest.

  • Also used for thickeners: pudding, ice cream, salad dressing, and Gel agar in petri dishes.

After notes we worked on U.P pg 27-31, whatever that was not finished was homework.

HW: pre-lab U.P pg 39-43, be prepared on Monday, know what we are doing. Nature Due 3/4

Next Scribe: Davin L.

Thursday, February 17, 2011



Lab 44 and Fungi Notes

Today in class, we took notes on Fungus.

Some important things to remember.......


Decompose dead organisms
  • Recycle vital chemicals back into the environment
  • Eukaryotes
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophs
  • Some fungi is pathogenic
Structure and Function

  • Adapted for absorptive nutrition
  • Hyphae- threads composed of tubular walls
  • Hyphae form mycelium, which is the feeding network of a fungus


  • Reproduce by releasing spores
  • spores germinate to produce mycelia

  • Yeast
  • Cheese
  • Delicacies
  • Antibiotics
  • Mycorrhizae
More detailed notes in note packet

We also did Lab 44


In this activity you will:

1. Identify the parts of a mushroom

2. Observe basidia and spores of a mushroom

3. Observe the structure of lichens


  • mushroom
  • hand lens
  • paper
  • lichens

We did not do everything that the procedure said. Mrs. Andrews showed us what the different thinngs looked like under the microscope.

Lab 44 is in the workbooks


Finish Lab 44
You Pick 2 UP pg 15-26 (pick to keys to do)

Next Scribe: Yunsu

Wednesday, February 16, 2011



Systematics- studying biological diversity(past and present) to reconstruct evolutionary history

Taxonomy- classification of species
-used to communicate internationally (common names for each species)
-international language-Latin

Carolus Linnaeus-physician and botanist who started Binomial nomenclature (two-part name for each species)
-Ex: Homo sapien (Genus capitalized, species lowercase, both in italics, or underlined if handwritten)

hierarchial classification system puts species into broader groups:

Before, species were grouped by appearance
Now, "Cladistic Revolution" has taken place because of use of DNA, molecules, and technology
-classify species with Cladistic analysis- search for clades("branch" which consists of an ancestor and its descendants in a tree of life)
-items in a clade can be species, classes, phyla, etc.
-focuses on evolutionary innovations that define branch points in evolution
-let phylogeny (evolutionary history of a group or species) be discovered
-most used method in systemics

Cladistic Analysis is shaking phlyogenetic trees
-puts birds and reptiles in separate classes
-produces phylogenetic trees conflicting with classical taxonomy

Old way: with 5 kingdoms
New way: with 3 domains
Bacteria (prokaryote)
Archaea (prokaryote)
Eukarya (eukaryote-plants, animals, fungi, protists)

Taxonomic Key- listing of specific characteristics, such as structure and behavior, in such a way that an organism can be identified
-has 2 opposing statements
-always start at statement number 1

Homework: UP 7-14
Next Scribe: Kristen M.

Sunday, February 13, 2011

Scribe Post: 2/14/11

TODAY, boys and girls, we finished our notes packet and worked on lab 32 in class (ooooooooooooooohhh) The notes taught us the names and characteristics of our evolutionary predecesor

  • Homo habilis- "handy man"- enlargement of brain, lived in east Africa
  • Homo erectus- extended territory to different parts of the world. Changes in diet included more meat consumption (from hunted animals), refined tools, taller, larger brain capacity (Thus more cognititve thought), lived in caves, built fires (hallelujah), social cooperation, African, Asian, European, and Austrailian.
  • Neandarthals- (descendents of H. erectus/ precursor to H. sapien)- Heavier browridges (sloped foreheads, similiar to gorillas), less pronounced chins, slightly larger brain size than us, skilled toolmakers, burials and rituals, abstract thought. Stereotypical "caveman", found in Europe, Middle East and Asia.
  • Homo sapiens- regionally diverse

- A.) Archiac Homo sapiens- oldest, over 300,000 years old, lived in Africa, Can include Neandarthals.

- B.) Cro-Magnon- like modern humans, lived in french caves (found cave drawings there), 35,000 years old.

- C.) Homo sapiens sapiens- Les humains modernes (modern humans :)

What happened to various H. Erectus descendents????

  • Multiregional hypothesis- Modern humans evolved simultaneously around the world. Genetic similiarities due to interbreeding with neighboring tribes.
  • "Out of Africa" hypothesis- (aka replacement hypothesis) Modern human arose from group in Africa and then spread around the world about 100,000 years ago. (Most widely accepted because of genetic backing)

Cultural Evolution-
  • Erect stance- Most radical change in our evolution. Required MAJOR realignment of pelvis, feet, and spine.
  • Enlargement of brain- secondary alteration-made possible by lengthened skull growth period. Accounts for lengthened parental care, and offspring learn from past generations.
  • Culture- transmission of accumulated knowledge by writing or storytelling.

Nomad, Agricultural, and Industrial.
Basicallly, we're more advanced than the "cavemen" because we've learnt from other's mistakes. We are no more smarter, but have the advantage of accumulated knowledge from past generations relayed to us by our parents, media, books, and TEACHERS (Thank you Mrs. Andrews :)


next scribe: Claire T.

Wednesday, February 9, 2011


Today, we took a quiz.

Human Ancestry

  • Early primates:

    evolved from insect-eating mammals during Cretaceous period (evidence from fossils)

  • were small

  • lived in trees (arboreal)

  • limber shoulder joints

  • could grab with their hands (dexterous)

  • nails started replacing claws

  • had depth perception (eyes close together in front of face)

  • eye-hand coordination

  • parents cared for their offspring

The 2 Major Primate Groups:


  • oldest

  • EX- lemurs, lorises, pottos, tarsiers

  • EX-monkeys, apes, humans

  • New World monkeys

  • in the Americas

  • arboreal

  • prehensile tails-could swing by tails and grab things with them unlike dogs or cats, it functioned as an extra appendage

  • Old World monkeys

  • mostly ground dwellers

  • EX- baboons-

  • -Prehensile tail, New World

Human Ancestors

  • closest anthropoid relatives=apes
  • gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimps
  • apes today live in tropical regions of Old World
  • Humans
  • young twig on vertebrate branch
  • chimps and humans diverged from common ancestor 5-7 million yrs. ago

  • Our ancestors are not modern apes and chimps; we diverged on a different branch than they did, but we both evolved from a common ancestor
  • they are more like our cousins than anything else

  • Human evolution is not a series of steps leading directly from an anthropoid ancestor to Homo sapiens; other groups have traveled to dead ends and died off
  • Many different human species coexisted
  • We are a subspecies of Homo sapiens

  • Human characteristics did not evolve at the same time
  • They evolved at different rates
  • Bipedalism-walking on two feet, led the way
  • We had some ancestors who walked on two feet and upright, but they still had ape-sized brains

Kinds of Hominids

Australopithecus-walked African savanna, came before Homo genus:

  • A. afarensis
  • early species
  • bipedal
  • a skull was found that was about 3.9 million yrs. old. It had a vertical backbone which provided evidence that upright posture is at least that old
  • Lucy-very complete skeleton of A. afarensis, female, 3ft tall, 3.2 million yrs. old
  • footprints also found, bipedal footprints in Africa, 3.7 million yrs. old
  • bipedalism is a very old trait
  • Australopithecus went extinct about 1.4 million yrs. ago


Lab 32-due Monday

Up pgs. 69-70, read and questions

Next scribe:

Aliza!! :)

Tuesday, February 8, 2011

2/8/11 Class Overview


How to tell geologic time using fossils

Macroevolution - large scale evolution (one species turns into another)
Microevolution - minor evolutionary changes

-Fossils in sedimentary rocks show that macroevolution has happened
-Earth's layers show a record of life
-Layers of sediment/fossil dating don't tell exact age... only ballpark/relative
-Layers closer to Earth's surface are youngest
-Deeper down low are older

4 Eras of Time: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenezoic

Radiometric Dating

-Measure how much radiation a fossil releases as they break down
-The amount of radiation as well as level of decay give you exact years
-Half-Life=the amount of time it takes for half of a fossil to radioactively decay
--So if a bat fossil would normally take 100 years to decay, its half-life is 50 years
--Think of the decay period (100 years) as the fossil's life, half of it is 50
-To date very old fossils, paleontologists simply use isotopes with longer half-lives
-Isotope=an atom (like the M&M's in our lab today) with uneven numbers of protons/neutrons

Continental Drift: Pangaea

-The idea that all land in the world used to be one huge piece of land
-It broke apart slowly into the separate pieces of today
-Still breaking apart.... 2 cm/year (Thanks Nick)
-Impacts of land break=extinctions, species isolation according to continents
-Plate boundaries=place where 2 plates meet
-Earthquakes occur at plate boundaries

In-Class Lab: M&M's

Purpose: To learn how radiometric dating and radioactive decay work

-The M&M's represented atoms that were radioactively decaying
-We took 100 and kept decaying them randomly by spreading them out and removing the ones that had no "M" inscribed on top. The removal represented decay~
-Once they decayed to around 50, the half-life was found by seeing how much time it took to get to 50 because half-life is a time period

Quiz on all evolution tomorrow.

Next Scribe: Bridget

Monday, February 7, 2011

February 7th

Took notes today. Lots o' notes.
HW: 39-43 in UP. Read ch. 1, 13, 14, 15, 17. Quiz tomorrow
Notes pages 1-11 in 7B packet.

Earth theories on life development:
1. BIG BANG - great big explosion and condensed forming atoms.
4 conditions necessary for chemical evolution:
1. No free oxygen. So no mammals.
2. Energy - built up by storms, volcanoes, and UV radiation.
3. Chemicals
4. Time.

Simulated mini big bang. mini bang.
Found monomers which make polymers and amino acids and building blocks and and and RNA and DNA bases!

1. life from non life.
2. life from life
3. Earth's new compounds.

EARTH SOUP = primordial.

Stages of origin of life:
1. Synthesis from abiotic chemicals.
2. linked monomers to make polymers (amino acids)
3. Origin of SELF replicating
4. Formation of pre-cells using monomers and polymers to form precells (no nuclei)
THESE CAME FIRST: Single cell, anaerobic, asexual, heterotrophic.

cell theory:
Cells are building blocks of life, cells come from other cells, all living things contain cells.

How did species evolve? From natural selection! Nature selected the fittest.

Speciation: creating new species. NONBRANCHING vs. BRANCHING
NONBRANCHING turns into different species
BRANCHING creates a new species and keeps the original ancestor as well.

SPECIES create FERTILE offspring!
1. Temporal isolation ---> TIME
2. Habitat isolation ----> some species live in winter, some in fall
3. Behavioral isolation ---> species must understand mating rituals, if not, no game.
4. Mechanical isolation ----> sex organ must work.
5. Gametic isolation ----> sex organs work together, but gametes do not work.

1. Hybrid inuiability---->offspring dies early in life
2. Hybrid sterility ----> offspring lives but is infertile/sterile

allopatric - other country. Some organisms are physically separated making it impossible for them to mate and produce new species
sympatric - together. new species live amongst parent species.

polyploidy - sudden speciation

My name is CJ and thank you for joining us on this week's episode of Honors Biology Period Three: THE BLOG.

Back to you, James (aka next scribe)


Saturday, February 5, 2011

Feb 4

important things to remember:

Punnett Squares
-know where to place dominant homozygous, heterozygous, recessive homozygous

p= dominant
q= recessive

p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

If you know p, then you know q (and vice versa)

know the difference between frequency and percentage

know the difference between finding the frequency/percentage of a gene (p/q) and population (2pq/p^2/q^2)

read the question carefully- the given info might not be what you think at first
go back to genetics notes if you forgot recessive/ dominant diseases

-genetic drift:
-bottleneck/founder effect
-gene pool
-gene flow
-natural selection:
-directional, diversifying, stabilizing
-darwinian fitness

Next scribe - CJ

Friday, February 4, 2011

Feb 1st

Today, we went over answers to UP pgs. 17A-E and notes.


Modern synthesis: the fusion of genetics with biology

Modern synthesis is a study of variations in populations caused by mutations and sexual recombination.

Population: group of SAME SPIECIES living in same area at same time (Important!)

Gene Pools: all of the alleles in all the individuals making up a population (how many big and small alleles)

Allele: form a trait

Ex: Wildflower with only two varieties-

Red flowers = R & white flowers = r

Suppose 80% or .8 of all flowers in the gene pool have the R allele.

p = relative frequency (how common something is) of the dominant allele (R), so p = .8

q = frequency of the recessive allele (r), so q = .2


Since there are only two alleles for flower color, then p+q=1 (MEMORIZE FOR TEST)!

Now that we know the formula, we can find the frequencies of the different genotypes in the population IF the gene pool is completely stable (non-evolving).

Meaning, no one can leave or join the population.

This is called the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

G.H. Hardy questioned, “How can both dominant and recessive alleles remain in populations? Why don’t dominants simply drive out recessives?”

It was discovered that genetic recombination does not by itself change the overall composition of the gene pool. They examined the behavior of alleles in an idealized population in which five conditions hold:

1. No mutations occur

2. No net movement of individuals in or out of the population

3. Population is large enough

4. Mating is random

5. All alleles are equally viable (no natural selection)

• Ex: Dwarfism -> Aa = Dwarf aa = normal AA = too much dwarfism in you, you can’t survive

This ideal environment is hard to find.

Now, back to the wildflower problem!

What’s the probability of producing an RR individual by “drawing” two R alleles from the pool of gametes?

R sperm x R egg (p x p) -> .8 x .8 = .64, or 64% of the plants in the population will have the RR genotype.

Well then, what is the frequency of rr individuals in the population?

r x r (q x q) -> .2 x .2 = .04, or 4% of the plants in the population will have the rr genotype.

What is the frequency of Rr in the population?

Rr + rR, or 2pq

2 (.8 x.2) = .32, or 32% are Rr with red flowers.

General formula: p^2+2pq+q^2=1 (MEMORIZE)!

You can use a Punnett Square to solve the problem as well.

Tonight’s homework:  UP pgs. 31-36 due Thursday

Next Scribe: Christine K.