Thursday, September 30, 2010

Cell Lab

Some Parts of a Cell:

Mitochondrion: provide the energy a cell needs to move divide, etc.
Gogli Apparatus: important in packaging and transporting macromolecules.
Nucleolus: produces ribosomes.
Cytoskeleton: helps maintain cell shape.
Cytosol: where all the cell organelles reside.
Lysosome: help in intracellular digestion.
Chloroplast: give the green color and take part in photosynthesis.
Vacuole: storage of water.

Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.
Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus.

Only bacterial cells and plant cells have cell walls.
Only plant cells have central vacuoles and chloroplasts.
Only animal cells have centrioles, lysosomes, and flagellum.
Flagellum help the cell move around its environment.
Cilia also help the cell navigate around its environment.
Plant cells are rectangular.
Animal cells are circular.
All specimens in the lab contain RNA, DNA, cell membranes, and ribosomes.

Cell Lab done in class on 9/29-30/10.

Specimen viewed under microscope:

Onion cells
Streptococcus cells
Elodea leaf cells
Human cheek cell
Frog blood cells
Tomato skin cells
Potato cells
Spirogyra cells (Algae)

Posted on 9/30/10
Next Scribe: Sally

Monday, September 27, 2010


Yunsu Y.
Enzyme Lab

Today the whole class time was devoted to the Enzyme Lab.

1. Catalase:
  • An enzyme thats speeds up the reaction which breaks down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into two harmless substances: water (H2o) and oxygen (O2).
  • This ties into the Enzyme Lab that we did today because if the bubbles were seen as a reaction in the test tubes, then the catalase was in action and broke up the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
2. Control Group:
  • Test tube filled with catalse to 1cm and 4cm of hydrogen peroxide.
  • This is the control group because the rest of the experiments are based off of this result.
* Purpose:The catalase is present to break down the hydrogen peroxide, but when substituted with a different substrate then will the same reaction occur? This was the focus of the lab.
3. Temperature
  • We all know that when something is colder in temperature then the slower chemical reactions are. The warmer the temperature the chemical reaction speeds up.
  • On the other hand, for enzymes the temperature has to be optimal for it to work properly. If the temperature is too hot then the heat will cause the enzyme to uncomfortable and even to denature. This goes the same when the temperature is too cold for the enzyme.
  • By testing the tubes in the refrigerator, incubator, and in the boiling water, we could look at the results to see at what temperature the enzymes find optimal. (At which temperature the catalase works the best, breaking down the hydrogen peroxide.)
4. pH Level
  • We used 3 different liquids with 3 different pH levels. One with HCl solution pH3-acidic, distilled water pH7-neutral, and NaOH pH11-base.
  • The optimum pH level for catalase is 7, which is neutral, in this case the distilled water. Similar to the temperature, if the pH level is too acidic or too much of a base then the enzyme will denature causing it to be unable to breakdown the hydrogen peroxide=no bubbles.
-Finish Enzyme Lab (questions)
-Mini Assignment due TOMORROW! (pg. 3 Tanning Beds and Skin Cancer)

Next Scribe: Sonali P.

Sunday, September 26, 2010


Carey E.
Today we did notes from the organics packet(green packet) pages 5-8.

I. Acids

  • When ions dissociate, the positives and negatives must equal zero. ex: 2+'s + 2-'s=0
  • Most acids start with hydrogen.
II. Neutral
  • Solution where concentration of H+ and OH ions are equal
III. Substrate and Active Site
  • Substrate is putting together or breaking apart binds to an enzyme that fits. Called an induced fit. This is an action that takes place on site.
  • Enzymes are recycled and do not change shape.
  • When the substrate is in the enzyme, water is added to break the bond of the substrate.
  • Most enzymes' suffix is ase. ex: glucose and fructose.
  • Enzymes keep working until there are no more substrates.
  • Every enzyme has a different tolerance of Ph.
IV. Enzyme Inhibition
  • Drugs and bacteria can inhibit-slow down-enzymes.
  • An inhibitor blocks the substrate from reacting with the enzyme.
  • Inhibitors can bind to another part of the enzyme and change the shape of the active site. ex: A water balloon changes its shape when something touches it.
  • Good and Bad
  • Good: it stores some food for reserve
  • Bad: you aren't getting the products you need
  • This reaction speeds up or slows down based on you're activity level. Helps control metabolism.
E + S----->ES-------->E+P
V. Vocabulary
  • degradation: substrate is broken down
  • synthesis: substrates join to form product
next scribe: Yunsu Y.

Thursday, September 23, 2010


In class on 9/23/10, we finished the organic notes that we started yesterday. Yesterday we stopped on mono/disaccharides, and we started from polysaccharides and into the proteins notes up to acids. Otherwise, there wasn't much else done in class. And, of course, we had homework, which was only the mini assignment that is due on Tuesday and preview and put hypotheses for each statement for UP pgs. 11-18, due tomorrow.

The following are the answers for each blank in the notes, from top to bottom in each box in the notes. The statements in parentheses indicates that there were extra statements provided by Mrs. Andrews: Starting with the last blank in the polysaccharides box: hydrophilic (water is hydrophilic, this statement was stared). Lipids box: hydrophobic, triglyceride, hydrocarbon, dehydrations. In steroids box: left mini box; lipids, hydrophobic, right mini box; anabolic steroids. Hazards of steroid use: east german, testostorone, organ damages, birth defects. Effects on teens: left column; pimples, breasts, tumors, violent, shorter, right column; hormones, development, gender mix-ups. Proteins box: specific sequence of amino acids (20 amino acids, like alphabet), hydrogen (weak), 2 or more (no more than 4) (peptide- bonds between amino acids, covalent bonds- strong bonds, hydrogen bonds- weak). Nucleic acids box: nucleic acids, DNA, RNA. (Next section) PROTEINS= Enzymes. Proteins box: proteins, amino acids. Amino acids box: 20 (stared), carboxl, amino (Remember: most proteins are hydrophilic). Forming Polymers: Dehydration synthesis, peptide (both stared). What is an enzyme?: enzyme, catalysts (Recycled), metabolism, activitation energy (stared). How to speed up a chemical reaction?: heating (a little bit), decrease. Enzymes are affected by...: temperature, pH, concentrations of enzymes or substance, specificity (example under it: 100 enzymes= 100 substrates). pH scale box: 0, 14. Ions box: charged particle, electron, dissociate).

Wednesday, September 22, 2010



Atoms and molecules

Today we received our unit one biology tests back. Class average of 75% woohoo!
(see Andrews during your lunch period to see tests)

Homework: read Chapters 2, 3, and 5 in the textbook for Thursday.
Mini assignment in "Cells R Us" packet (pg. 3) due Tuesday.
Are tanning beds a skin cancer risk?We began our Cell Unit notes, pages 1-4

I. Carbon
Carbon is an abundant atom. It can bond to 4 other atoms.
a. commonly bonds with hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.
1.A drawn line in a molecule model resembles a bond.

carbon skeletons - chain of carbon atoms.
hydrocarbons - simplest organic compound.

2. Hydrocarbons can take up many different structures
i. ringed, double bonded, single bonded, branched, unbranched.

<---Carbon skeletons can vary in length.

II. Functional groups

Functional groups allow molecules to bond. A molecule can have one or more functional groups attached.
The types of functional groups:

  • Hydroxyl group - found in alcohols and sugars
  • Carbonyl group - found in sugars (carbon)
  • Amino group - found in amino acids (nitrogen)
  • Carboxyl group - molecules with carboxyl groups are called carboxylic acids; found in amino acids, fatty acids, some vitamins. Combination of alcohol and carbon.
NOTICE: Carbonyl and CarBOXyl are two different groups.

III. Building larger molecules
Macromolecules - biological molecules like DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. A.K.A: big molecule.
Monomer - chemical subunit. Building block for polymers, macromolecules consisting of many identical/similar monomers bonded together.
a. How do I remember this? MONOmer, a SINGLE chemical subunit that makes up a POLYmer, many monomers bonded.
b. 4 major macromolecules:
1. Proteins
2. Carbohydrates
3. Nucleic acids
4. Lipids
Dehydration - linking of monomers together to form a polymer. WATER IS REMOVED BY TAKING A HYDROGEN (H) FROM ONE MOLECULE AND AN ALCOHOL (OH) FROM THE OTHER.
bonds cannot be left open.
a. If you take H (hydrogen) from one molecule and OH (alcohol) from another molecule, the bonds are open causing them to join together.
1. from those open bonds comes water, H2O (H+HO)
b. Hydrolysis - to break with water.
1. this is the opposite of dehydration. The polymer breaks into monomers because you are breaking the bonds of the polymer by ADDING a water molecule.

To make a bond, you must lose water.

Matter gets changed, not eliminated or added. That is why you must add the bond along with the monosaccharides

V. Carbohydrates

All monosaccharides
are C6H12O6

a. They are simple sugars. Glucose and fructose.

DisaccharidesFormed by synthesis of two monosaccharides.
a. broken down by hydrolysis into two monosaccharides.

Starch - storage polysaccharide.
Glycogen - stores excess sugar, found in animals (it is branched. Remember what branched is? It's another structure of carbon skeletons.)
Cellulose - most abundant organic compound;; found in plants.
CANNOT be hydrolyzed. (what does hydrolyzed mean? Cannot be broken up by water. AKA Fiber).
Almost all carbohydrates are hydrophilic. (love water!)

Next scribe: Skyler S.

Friday, September 17, 2010


Nick S.

Ch. 20 – Human Impact on the Environment

1. We took ch. 18-19 quiz
2. We went over the notes

Important Vocab
In this unit we will look at several environmental problems:

Introduced Species: humans move a species from its original habitat and move it to a new geographic region, and then the species outcompete native species.



Toxic chemical: Examples are mercury, DDT and PCBs. They are stored in the fats and biological magnification occurs,

Global Warming

Ozone Layer Depletion

Biodiversity crisis: a decline in Earth`s great variety of life in ecosystems, of species, and of genetic variation within each species.

3 main causes:
1. Habitat Destruction
2. Introduced species
3. Overexploitation

Environmental Action Simulation pg. 73-75

The main purpose was to see what programs that your group would pick if you had $20,000 to spend as part of the GCEAO (Granite City Environmental Action Organization).The roles were; Secretary, Reader/Leader, Community Members and Activists. Once your group spent all of your $20,000, then your group must write a paper explaining which organization got your money and why.

1. Read ch. 20
2. Oil spill paper- due 9/22

Next Scribe: CJ

Saturday, September 11, 2010

9/10/10 Post


Katelynn B.

Communities and Ecosystems Chpt. 19

1. We went over/turned in homework
2. We looked at our current grades
3. We went over notes

Important vocab in notes (*=important)

How do organisms interact in communities?:
Properties of communities

Form of vegetation
Trophic Structure (Trophic is related to feeding)*

Interactions in Communities

Interspecific competition

Ecological niche
Resource partitioning
Predator adaptions
Plant defenses
Animal defenses

Batesian mimicry
Mullerian mimicry
Keystone predator

Symbiotic relationships

Disturbances in Communities

Ecological succession
Primary succession
Secondary succession
Pioneer Species
Climax Community

Ecosystem Dynamics

Energy flow
Chemical cycling
Food chain

Food web


That's where we ran out of time

UP 43-64, 43-53, 55-59, 61-64, 62A

Next scribe

Davin L.

Friday, September 10, 2010

Sept. 8, 2010


Justin A.

Ecology Population

• We went over the homework (UP pg. 37-41).

• Turned in lab 58.

• Video: How to count populations

- For species that don’t move, like plants, use the method of random sampling (quadrant).

1. First get an area of where the plant is - randomly.

2. Make a quadrant.

3. Count the number of plants in every quadrant.

4. Find the average.

- For species that move like animals, use these methods.

1. For water animals (example: sharks), use photo identification. Identify the skin pattern and then when the next shark’s picture is taken, see if it has a different pattern so you know it is not the same one.

2. For animals like deer, take a video with inferred rays to count them from a helicopter. See the pattern of their skin.

3. For animals at night, use a motion camera with night vision (example: tigers). See the tiger’s skin as it goes by. Then when a new one is seen, check if you’ve seen it before.

4. The most common way to find the population of land animals is mark and recapture. To do this, you need to find a couple of animals of the same species. Mark them in a certain way. Then when you see another one, you know if you have seen it before because it will have the mark.

• Next we did a lab (pg. 76 in workbook).

- Lab: Mark and Recapture.

1. Materials: toy animals, tape and a bucket.

2. Objective: To be able to estimate the total number of toys in the bag without counting every single one using the Mark and recapture method

• Homework: Work on UP pgs. 43-53, Finish Termite lab report, and work on Oil Spill

Next scribe: Katie B.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Kristen M.
Lab 58: Learning About Population Density

  • Population density: the numbers of individuals in a population in a certain area
  • Carrying capacity: the largest population density that a certain environment can support

In this activity you will:

  1. Practice one method of measuring population density
  2. Calculate the change in population density of one species
  • Set up a quadrat of 1 square meter
Count how many clovers, dandelions, and plantain that are in each quadrat
Population denisty-

Dandelion: 18.4/m^2

Plaintain: 3.8 /m^2

Clover: 59.8/m^2

Next Scribe: Justin

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Christine K

Chapter 18 notes cont...
  • Population Ecology- factors that influence a population's size, growth rate, density & structure
  • Population- group of individuals of the same species in a given area
  • Population Density- # of individuals of a species per unit area/volume
  • Sampling techniques- impossible to count ALL individuals; estimate
  • Patterns of dispersion: Clumped, Uniform, Random
  • Population Growth Models: Exponential Growth (J-curve), Logistic Growth (S-curve)
  • 2 limiting factors of population growth: density-dependent, desity-independent
  • Survirorship curve- plots # of organisms still alive at each age (3 types)
  • Life History: Opportunistic, equilibrial, big bang


  • Minamata disease- 1) mercury poisoning pollutes water 2)contaminates fish 3) consumed by animals 4) effects of food poisoning first shown through cats (paralysis, death) 5) people become paralyzed, some children born with paralysis
  • DDT used to get rid of insects (esp. farmers)- Rachel Carson's Silent Spring publicizes negative effects, traced in pelican eggs causing them to break when incubating mother sits on them because the shells become thin
  • Environmental problems


  • UP 37-41 for Tues.
  • Termite Lab due Fri 9/10
  • Read lab 58
  • Oil Spill Paper 9/22

Next Scribe: Kristen M.

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Aliza R.
Examining an Ecosystem

(Pg. 35of UP)

  • Purpose: To see and personally experience how man has impacted the environment
  • Walk around your neighborhood (or in our case, outside the school) and observe the things that mankind has implemented that are harmful and, or beneficial to the environment
  • Use the table on UP pg. 35 to write down some things outside and write one positive and negative thing that relates to the ecosystem about it. (eg: Car; good for humans because of transportation purposes; bad for the environment because of harmful emmisions)
The Study of a Pond Water Ecosystem:
  • Purpose: Since it is not within reach to build/create an ecosystem in the science room, we studied pond water to get a feel for what an ecosystem may look like
  • Find the Biotic and Abiotic factors in the pond water. (eg: Planerium- flatworm-is a biotic factor while water is an Abiotic factor)
  • In the water was:
  • Algae: The producer
  • Bacteria/ micro-organisms: The secondary consumers
  • Planeruim: The tertiary consumers
Important Vocabulary:
  • Ecosystem: The system formed between organisms and their environment
  • Abiotic Factor: The non-living aspect of an ecosystem.( sun, soil, water..ect.)
  • Biotic Factor: The living aspect of an ecosystem.(plants, animals, bacteria...ect.)
  • Producer: The bottom of the food chain; Makes its on food using te sun's energy. (plants)
  • Consumer: One level higher than producers; Gain energy by feeding off of producers.( animals, insects...ect.)
Homework Assigned
  1. Termite Lab Report DUE 9/10/10
  • Use template on UP pg. 27
  • Must have cover page, visuals, and a bibliography
  • Termite Lab rough drafts DUE 9/7/10
2. Oil Spill Research Project DUE 9/22/10
  • Description on UP pg.5
  • Must have intext citations, bibliography must be in MLA format
  • Grading rubric on UP pg. 7
Next Scribe: Christine K.

Aug 31, 2010

Scribe - Bridget S.

Agenda for Today

• Finished Lab 1- Microscope
• Talked about “Ecology of an Oil Spill” writing assignment- DUE 9/22/10
• Started ecology notes Ch. 18

The Microscope Lab Summary

• This lab was to help you get used to using a microscope.
• First, we put a small letter “e” clipped from a newspaper onto a slide, dropped a drop of water onto it, and placed the cover slip on top. (this is called a wet mount.)
• Then, we looked at the “e” from the microscope, adjusting the coarse focus knob until it came into focus. (your field of view.)
• We examined what happened when the slide was moved to the left and when it was moved to the right.
• We also examined the “e” under different powers and recorded what it looked like.
• Then, we prepared a wet mount with 2 pieces of crossing hair and examined them under different powers.

**Why did we do this lab? - to understand 1.  field of view, 2. depth and resolving power, 3. how to increase magnification without losing your object, 4. familiarize yourself with how to use the microscope

 Please answer questions on page 34. (UP)

“Ecology of an Oil Spill” Assignment- DUE 9/22/10

• Please read pgs. 5-7. (UP)

o You have been hired by BP to write a paper suggesting 3 ideas (and their approximate cost for each) for solving the oil spill problem and to help save the lives of marine organisms. (plants and animals)
o You need to research the effects an oil spill has on plants and animals first.
o Your paper should include the following;

 A cover sheet
 Intro paragraph
 Body
 Conclusion
 Bibliography

• Here are some additional things we went over in class:

 “Wikipedia “ is NOT a source
 Use in-text citations (Author, pg. #) after every sentence that is not yours
 Do not use contractions
 Be sure to write in 3rd person, no “I”
 If you use the websites on pg. 6, still cite them correctly
 You may use the article on pg. 8A to get you started

Ch. 18 Notes so far

Pgs. 1-2

• Population is increasing rapidly, so we have to be careful to not lose all of the resources that we have.
• We learned new terms about ecology like;
 Ecology- interactions between organisms and their environment
 Abiotic factors- non- living chemical and physical factors
 Biotic factors- living factors
 Population- group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area
 Community- all the organisms inhabiting a particular area
 Ecosystem – the community and abiotic factors
 Biosphere- sum of earth’s ecosystems
 Environmentalism – started in the 1960s when people realized that unsafe technology was being practiced in the 1950s


• Start oil spill research
• Read textbook Ch. 18 and do notes (in Moodle)
• Finish Lab #1
• Termite Lab report due 9/10

Next scribe = Aliza