Wednesday, December 8, 2010


Genetic Engineering Notes

Today in class we started our notes on Unit 5: "Designer Genes"

DNA Technology- methods to study and manipulate genetic material.
  • corn can produce its own insecticid
  • Bacteria can clean up pollution
  • DNA fingerprints- to solve crimes
  • Advances toward curing fatal genetic diseases
4 Ways DNA technology Can Be Used:
  • Use of recombinant (recombine) to produce useful products
  • Use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science
  • Comparison of genomes
  • Use of human gene therapy for treatment of diseases
3 Ways to Transfer DNA

1. Transformation- the taking up of DNA from the fluid surrounding a cell.

2. Transduction- the transfer of bacterial genes by a phage. The phage has a fragment of
DNA from its previous host cell. Now it is injected into the new host.

3. Conjugation- a "male" bacterial cell attaches to a "female"v cell by sex pili, a bridge forms, and DNA passes from the male to the female.

Here are some terms we went over today:

Biotechnology- the use of organisms to perform practical tasks.

ex: use of bacteria to produce cancer drugs and pesticides

Genetically Modified organism- an organism that carries recombinant DNA

Transgenic organism- a host that carries DNA from a different species

Cutting and Pasting DNA:

  • Restriction Enzymes- the cutting tools. These enzymes recognize short nucleotide sequences in DNA and cut at specific points.
  • Restriction site- the place where DNA is cut
  • staggered cuts yield 2 double stranded DNA fragments with single stranded "sticky ends"
  • Sticky ends are key to joining with other DNA
  • Join another DNA with 1st DNA
  • DNA ligase connects the DNA pieces
  • Result: a DNA recombinant molecule from 2 different sources

Obtaining the gene of interest: 2 ways

1. Using a radioactive DNA probe
2. Use reverse transcription to make an artificial DNA gene from mRNA

DNA Fingerprinting- a procedure that analyzes a person's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments. Used in forensics- determines whether 2 samples of DNA are from the same individual. Samples come from blood, semen,hair, skin or other biological evidence.

Homework: UP pg. 13-15, 7-10, 5-6

Next scribe: Davin

1 comment:

  1. i like how you put pictures to explain each part of the post. This helped me to better understand each part.