Genetic Engineering Notes
Today in class we started our notes on Unit 5: "Designer Genes"
DNA Technology- methods to study and manipulate genetic material.
- corn can produce its own insecticid
- Bacteria can clean up pollution
- DNA fingerprints- to solve crimes
- Advances toward curing fatal genetic diseases
- Use of recombinant (recombine) to produce useful products
- Use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science
- Comparison of genomes
- Use of human gene therapy for treatment of diseases
1. Transformation- the taking up of DNA from the fluid surrounding a cell.
2. Transduction- the transfer of bacterial genes by a phage. The phage has a fragment of
DNA from its previous host cell. Now it is injected into the new host.
3. Conjugation- a "male" bacterial cell attaches to a "female"v cell by sex pili, a bridge forms, and DNA passes from the male to the female.
Here are some terms we went over today:
Biotechnology- the use of organisms to perform practical tasks.
ex: use of bacteria to produce cancer drugs and pesticides
Genetically Modified organism- an organism that carries recombinant DNA
Transgenic organism- a host that carries DNA from a different species
Cutting and Pasting DNA:
- Restriction Enzymes- the cutting tools. These enzymes recognize short nucleotide sequences in DNA and cut at specific points.
- Restriction site- the place where DNA is cut
- staggered cuts yield 2 double stranded DNA fragments with single stranded "sticky ends"
- Sticky ends are key to joining with other DNA
- Join another DNA with 1st DNA
- DNA ligase connects the DNA pieces
- Result: a DNA recombinant molecule from 2 different sources
Obtaining the gene of interest: 2 ways
1. Using a radioactive DNA probe
2. Use reverse transcription to make an artificial DNA gene from mRNA
DNA Fingerprinting- a procedure that analyzes a person's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments. Used in forensics- determines whether 2 samples of DNA are from the same individual. Samples come from blood, semen,hair, skin or other biological evidence.
Homework: UP pg. 13-15, 7-10, 5-6
Next scribe: Davin