Wednesday, March 23, 2011


Chapter 29 Continued
  • Transpiration works greatest on sunny, warm, dry and windy days.
  • Maple tree can lose more than 200 L of water per hour (that's a lot)!
  • Leaf stomata can help plants adjust to transpiration rates by changing shape.
  • Open during the day, closed during the night (saves water).
  • The stomata may close during the day if the plant is losing water too fast.
The Transport of Sugars:
  • Phloem saps move in various directions inside of a plant.
  • Phloem moves sugar from a leaf to a root of fruit.
  • They move through a pressure-flow mechanism.
  • Pressure-flow mechanism is the building of water pressure at source end of phloem tube, and the reduction of water pressure at the sink end causes water to flow from the source (leaf) to sink (root or fruit), carrying sugar with it.
Plant Hormones:
  • Plant hormones control the growth & development of a plant.
  • It affects division, elongation, & differentiation in cells.
    • Auxin - Produced by apical meristem, stimulates growth of the shoot -- causes the cell to elongate.
      • Cells elongate on the darker side of the stem, causing the stem to bend on opposite sides.
      • Requires certain concentrations: too much causes inhibition of stem elongation.
      • Usually inhibits roots.
    • Ethylene - A gas that triggers aging responses - fruit ripening, dropping of leaves.
      • Why does "one bad apple spoil the whole bunch?" Because one causes all to spoil, it spreads out.
    • Cytokinins - Regulates growth, promotes cell division in roots, embryos, and fruits. 
      • Stimulates growth of axillary buds (makes it more bushy).
    • Gibberellins - Stimulates cell elongation & cell division in stems.
      • Can influence fruit development.
    • Abscisic Acid - Slows growth.
      • During droughts, causes stomata to close when wilted, preventing further water loss.
  • Enviornment that plants use to detect the time of the year; Lengths of day & night.
  • 2 Groups:
    • Long-night Plants - chrysanthemum & poinsettias - flower in late summer, fall, or winter, when night lenghtens (Short-day).
    • Short-night Plants - lettuce, iris, cereal grains, flower in late spring or early summer, when nights are brieft (Long-day).
  • We are currently transitioning into short-nights.
  • Some plants aren't affected by photoperiods -- dandelions.
HW: EC UP. 63-64, Study!

Next Scribe: Sonali P.


Chapter 29: The Working Plant

Sap- a watery solution that moves through the vascular system.
-In the xylem, it carries nutrients from root to leaves.
-In phloem, it transports pre made sugar to the leaves and other parts of the plant.
-Made in Spring using starch from the previous summer into sugar

-Plants need CO2 from air (through stomata)
-They need H2O from soil (root hairs)
-and O2 from soil (through stomata)

-A plant releases more O2 by photosynthesis than by
-All nutrition that enters the plant must be dissolved in water.
-Go through the epidermis -> cortex ->plasma membrane of root cells
-Plants need Macronutrients in large amounts. (carbon, hydrogen, oxtygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and magnesium.)
-They need Micronutrients in small amounts (zinc, molybdenum, boron, nickel, mainly enzymes.)

Bacteria help with nutrition; three types:
1.) NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA- converts N2 in the air to ammonium
2.) AMMONIFYING BACTERIA- adds ammonium to decomposing plant matter
3.) NITRIFYING BACTERIA- converts soil to nitrate.

-Legumes have root nodules that contain nirtogen fixing bacteria.
-Symbiotic relationship, bacteria get home, plants get ions in soil.

The transportation of water:
-Pulled up through transpiration
-cohesion water molecules stick together
-adhesion-water molecules stick to each other

next scribe SALLY Y.

Monday, March 14, 2011


Look for more notes at the flowering plant lab

Difference between Monocots and Dicots:


  • include orchids, palms, lilies, grains, and grasses.
  • 1 cotyledon
  • veins usually parallel
  • Vascular bundles in scattered arrangement
  • floral parts usually in multiples of 3
  • Fibrous root system


  • 2 cotyledons
  • veins usually branched
  • vascular bundles arranged in ring
  • floral parts usually in multiples of 5
  • taproot usually present
Roots: root hairs increase surface area of root for absorbtion. Large taproots-store food
Stems: Terminal bud is at apex of stem. It produces hormones making the plant grow up toward the sun.
3 kinds of stems:
  1. Runner: horizontal stem, new plants emerge from tip of runner
  2. Rhizome: Horizontal undergrowth stems, store food and can bud new plants
  3. Tubers: rhizomes ending in large structures(potatoes)
Tendrils= modified leaves for climbing and support.
Parenchyma cells: most abundant cell, for food storage, only primary cell walls
Collenchyma cells: provide support in growing parts of plant, only primary cell walls
Sclerenchyma cells: have thick secondary walls with lignin(wood), when mature most are dead
2 plant vascular tissues:
  1. Xylem: contains water conducting cells- move water and minerals up stem
  2. Phloem: contains food conducting cells-transport sugars from leaves or storage tissue to other parts of plant
3 tissue systems continuous throughout plant:
  1. Dermal: covers, protcts, waxy coating
  2. Vascular: xylem and phloem, support and transport
  3. Ground: bulk of young plant, fills spaces between epidermis and vascular
Pollination and double fertilization steps:
  1. Pollination
  2. Pollen form 2 sperm
  3. sperm travel through a pollen tube to ovule
  4. double fertilization occurs
next scribe: Davin

Saturday, March 12, 2011

March 11, 2011


Today we started off the day by watering our Wild plants. We watered them good for the weekend.
Next we moved on to notes.

Moss-Antheridium is the male gametophyte

II. Ferns
  • very diverse and most live in the tropics and temperate woodlands.
  • Started to have vascular tissue
  • Sperm are still flagellated (STILL NEED WATER!)
  • Still seedless- have spores
  • Sporophytes are diploid and gametophytes are haploid
  • Sporophyte is the dominant stage
  • heart shaped gametophyte is Prothallus
III. Gymnosperms
  • cone-bearing plants (conifers)
  • Withstand harsh winter
  • Tallest, oldest, largest
  • needle shaped leaves
  • have thick cuticle and stomata in pits to prevent water loss
  • wood- vascular tissue with liginin
  • more sporophyte generation, gametophytes live in cones
  • have pollen (male gametophyte
  1. contains sperm
  2. wind carries it
  3. evolution of seeds
  • lack ovaries so seeds are naked
  • seeds germinates under favorable conditions only
  • 2 types of cones
  1. Female cone is hard, woody, and more familiar (pinecones)
  2. Male cone is smaller, releases millions of pollen grains. Wind blows it.
  3. Advantage is more genetic variation
IV. Angiosperms- flowering plants
  • supply food, textile, some lumber
  • refined vascular tissue
  • evolution of flowers- responsible for unparalleled success
  • the flowers display male and female parts
  • insects transfer pollen. Advantage of this is there is a higher chance of pollenation
  • Flower has Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals
  1. Sepals- green, enclose flower before is opens up
  2. petals- these are th parts that attract the insects
  3. stamen- have filaments that bears a sac called the anther. Anther is a MALE organ that develops the pollen grains
  4. Carpel- also known as pistil. has a sticky tip called the stigma that traps the pollen. Has a style and an ovary. A chamber containing one or more ovules. This is where the egg develops!
Angiosperms life cycle
  • Sporophyte is a familiar plant- female gametophyte within the ovule, and th emale gametophyte is the pollen
  • pollen lands on stigma, tube goes to the ovule. It deposits 2 sperm nuclei. Double fertalization
  • one sperm cell fertilizes. This becomes a zygote and then an embryo.
  • the other cell becomes nutrient for the embryo- storing tissue is called the endosperm
  • Embryo has food within the ovule
  • Ovule develops into a seed. THE SEED IS NOT NAKED
  • Fruit: ripened ovary of the flower
  • Fruit protects and helps disperse seeds.
  • Animals help to disperse the seeds
  • All fruit and vegetables crops are angiosperms.

This is the end of the notes we took. Next we watched a Life video.

HW: Read Chapter 28, work on projects

next scribe is Care Bear

Thursday, March 10, 2011


For the graph, you will draw 4 lines per line graph.
1. Your water rosette
2. Your GA rosette
3. Class Avg. water rosette
4. Class Avg. GA rosette

New terms:
gibberellin ~ substance that make stems longer
hormone ~ substance that messes with women during pregnancy (transports around organism with specific effect)
node ~ points where leaves are connected
internode ~ part of stem in between 2 nodes

Why study plants?
-B.E.A. uuuutiful. -Jim Carrey, Bruce Almighty -Foodclothesenergylumberpaperoxygenwaterrecreationart ETC.
-Forests are being destroyed... we are gon' learn how we can help!

-Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotroph

Adapted to Land:
1. Mycorrhizae ~ plant root/fungi alliance
Fungi absorb the soil's minerals for plant, plant's sugar nourishes fungi in return.
2. Stomata ~ pores in a leaf exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen.
3. Cuticle (Cutin) ~ leaf wax, holds water
4. Lignin ~ hardens cell walls
5. Roots and shoots ~ stem plant growth
6. Xylem tissue moves water up^
Phloem tissue moves food around <>
7. Gametangia ~ cell shield that guards female gamete chamber
8. Seed dispersal ~ relies on wind/animals... =plant reproduction

Origin of Plants from Green Algae
Charophycean ~ multicell green algae-Mother of Plants
Plant Evolution: 1. bryophytes (moss)
2. ferns (reproduce via spore)
3. gymnosperms (Christmas trees)
4. angiosperms (flowers)

1. bryophytes
-MOSS, many plants packed together
-NO CUTICLE WAX, no true roots
-reproduce needs water, flagellated sperm swim to egg
-No vascular tissue(no water transport), no lignin(cell wall)
-Damp Dark places
-Green sponge plant ~ gametophyte
-Grows from gametophyte, tall brown shoot with capsule ~ sporophyte

Generations Take Turns
-Generations take turns making each other
Gametophytes' egg and sperm make zygote, makes new sporophytes
Sporophytes' spores make strong organisms, makes new gametophytes

[Note to next scribe: Start off notes with II.Ferns on page 7 of note packet.]

Extra Credit: Find moss with both Gametophyte and Sporophyte generations and bring em'!

-In groups of 4, an American wildland was chosen and we are to research them.
-Using GoogleDocs, we are to create an 8 minute presentation that we will present when we return from SPRING BREAK! ... (to get to GoogleDocs, sign in with your Glenbrook225 email on and on the top left of Google, there should be a 'More' and select "Documents"
-Requirements for project are on page 3 of UP, Rubric on page 4 of UP
-Next Friday, 3/18, will be the 2nd and last IMC work day. Be solid by then.


scribe: Justin Timberlake

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

Chordata, 3/2/11


We looked at things inside of jars. These things have something in common. They are all part of the phylum: CHORDATA. They are also all in the sub-phylum: VERTEBRAE.

There are 7 classes of vertebrae:
1. Agnatha
2. Chondrichthyes
3. Osteichthyes
4. Amphibia
5. Reptilia
6. Aves
7. Mammalia

The common chordate traits are:
dorsal hollow nerve cord
gills or pharyngeal slits
post anal tail

-lack jaws
-includes lampreys
-sometimes are parasites

-usually predators
-sharks can sense electrical movements
-nearly all marine

-bony fishes
-they are buoyant, unlike sharks
-the operculum is a protective flap that allows
the fish to breathe without swimming

-"double life"
-moist skin
-includes metamorphosis

-first evolved amniotic eggs (water containing eggs)
-regulate internal temperature by behavior

-also have amniotic eggs
-they have scales on their feet like reptiles

-constant internal temperature

three groups of mammals:
1. Monotremes (egg laying mammals)
2. Marsupials (pouched mammals)
3. Eutherians (placentas provide long lasting association between mom and child)

hw: Nature due on Friday, 87-93 and extra credit 81-82

scribe: Nick.

the end.